Presentation on theme: "IDs / Definitions Mein Kampf Nuremberg Laws 1935 Policy of Appeasement"— Presentation transcript:
1IDs / Definitions Mein Kampf Nuremberg Laws 1935 Policy of Appeasement AnschlusslebensraumKristallnachtConcentration Camp systemMunich Pact10-Year Non-Aggression Pact (Soviet Union and Germany)Allied Powers / Axis PowersBlitzkriegStalingrad / El Alamein / D-DayV-E Day / V-J DayNuremberg Laws Laws against the marriage between Germans and Jews to prevent mixing of bloodlines. Also revoked citizenship of Jews.Policy of Appeasement- Policy taken by the West (France and Britain) to give in to Hitler’s demands in order to avoid European War.Anschluss – Idea of unification of Austria and GermanyLebensraum- Hitler’s call for more living space for the German speaking peoples at the expense of “inferior” Slavs.Kristallnacht- Pogroms carried out against the Jews of Nazi Germany during 1938Concentration Camp system- Employed by the Nazis to house enemies of the Reich and Jews in order to use them for slave labor or extermination.Munich pact- Agreement between Britain, France and Germany to cede the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany.10-Year Non Agression pact- Secret agreement between Hitler and Stalin that when Hitler invaded Poland that the USSR would do nothing to intervene.Allied Powers/Axis powers- The Allied powers consisted of the western countries and the Axis was Germany, Italy and Japan.Blitzkrieg- lightning war strategy used by Germany.Stalingrad / El Alamein / D-Day- Three decisive battles won by the Allies that turned the tide of the war between 1942 and 1943.V-E Day / V-J Day- Allied nations occupy Germany/Atomic bombs dropped on Japan.
2Questions and Imperatives How did Adolf Hitler deal with the Churches of Germany? The Jews? The Versailles Treaty?Discuss the step-by-step progress of Hitler taking over the nations of Europe.How did the Allied nations plan to deal with WWII?Can the force of ideas sustain a civilization under attack? (Class discussion)Hitler dealt with the churches by appointing one bishop for the Reich and he formed an agreement with them to allow them to continue to freely practice. In return the churches kept silent throughout the persecution of Jews and the genocide. Hitler instituted a multi-step plan to erase the Jews from the Reich and Europe in general. His plans became harsher as time went on. First he stripped them of citizenship, then forbade them to have sexual relationships with non-Jewish Germans. After the Kristallnacht many had fled. However those remaining were formed into ghettos and then sent to concentration camps were extermination and forced labor followed.Hitler began by annexing the country of Austria and completing Anschluss. Next in order to increase the Lebensraum he retook the Sudetenland with the Munich Pact and eventually annexed a large portion of Czechoslovakia. In 1939 Hitler invaded Poland and annexed it. After Poland he took Norway and Denmark, followed by the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Finally he invaded France with Italy and had gained a grasp of much of Europe along with some other Slavic countries. He continued to bomb Great Britain and began his invasion of Russia. The attacks on both of these countries never resulted in full annexation.
3January 30, 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg names Nazi party Leader, Adolf Hitler the new Chancellor of Germany.
4Hitler named Chancellor January 1933WhyWhat followedBurning of ReichstagEnabling ActDachau
14War Against the Jews 1935 Nuremburg Laws 1938 Kristallnacht “War” moves beyond GermanyDisenfranchiseDehumanizeExpropriationConcentrationAnnihilation
15Nuremberg LawsThe Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honorprohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between "Jews” and "Germans"Prohibited the employment of "German" females under forty-five in Jewish householdsThe Reich Citizenship Lawthose of German blood (Aryan) are German citizensNot Aryan = state subjectsNot Aryan, cannot fly flag of the Reich
17Mussolini in ItalyMussolini sends troops to discourage Hitler from annexing Austria in 1934Mussolini was “active” in Europe, tried to tell other European nations that he could not always be the one tocontrol problems(e.g. Hitler’s attemptsto expand)
18“Third Reich”1934 is rather quiet for the Jews, think that Hitler cannot last, butHindenburg dies in August and Hitler becomes the Führer, the leader, he names his new reign the “Third Reich”
191935( ), about 1/10 of the Jews leave Germany, and of those about 1/3 return because they find anti-Semitism strong in other countriesLoss of jobsPersecution / murdersNuremberg LawsMarch 1935, Hitler reimposes peacetime conscription throughout Germany, building up troops (against the Versailles Treaty), secret rearmament had been going on since 1933May, Jews excluded from the armed forcesJuly, pogrom in Berlin, Jews beaten and shops destroyed
20Strange Bedfellows?January 7, 1935, Mussolini and Laval sign French-Italian agreement in Rome, French agreeing to give Italy a free hand in EthiopiaMussolini had colonial ambitions, Italy had been defeated by the Ethiopians in 1890s and Mussolini wanted to conquer themEthiopian Emperor said if you don’t watch it, Europe will be nextG.B. not happy with the Fr-It agreement and when Italy moved on Ethiopia, G.B. imposed economic sanctions and condemned Italyby the end of the year, foreign ministers of G.B. and Fr suggested a compromise such that Italy would receive 2/3 of Ethiopianot well received and Mussolini decided Italy could stand alone against the world, war took place in EthiopiaHitler supported Mussolini with supplies, at the same time making his own movesMussolini appreciated Hitler’s helpRome-Berlin Axis (Axis powers)
231936March, Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland (against the Versailles Treaty)OLYMPICS IN GERMANYNovember, Germany/Italy form a military alliance and Germany/Japan sign a pactshe has to be good, look good to the outside world; Jews can take a breath
291938MARCH - the ANSCHLUSSHitler wanted the union (Anschluss) of Austria with Germany (failed in 1934)Hitler pressure Chancellor Schuschnigg of Austria for union, but…Hitler moves his troops to the border which causes Schuschnigg to resign (Austrian Nazi to take his place as Chancellor - Seyss- Inquart)German troops march into Austria greeted by cheering crowds (not the Jews)Great Britain at this point followed a policy of appeasement (P.M. Chamberlain knew that the Austrian union was coming and accepted it)Mussolini, who had kept Hitler from Austria in 1934 now congratulated him (Mussolini realized the strength of the Third Reich and could not have opposed it anyway)
32Jews of Austria What German Jews experienced in 5 years, Austrian Jews experienced in daysIn August, Adolf Eichmann established “Zentralstelle fuer juedische Auswanderung”Jews begin to emigrate
331938SUDETENLAND:Hitler wanted German speaking Sudetenland (3 million people) of Czechoslovakiaafter the Anschluss, Sudetenland question again aroseFrance had a treaty with Czechoslovakia to help protect her, but G.B. would not support Francethreats and discussion went back and forth, Czechoslovakia did not want to give up this regionSeptember - discussions
34Against the Versailles Treaty : secretly rearming1935: remilitarizes the Rhineland1935: outwardly rearmingtakes back landPOLICY OF APPEASEMENT
35Munich PactP.M. Chamberlain did not want to provoke Hitler in to war and was ready to appease again in the situation of the SudetenlandMunich Conference held in September attended by Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini, and Daladier...German would annex the Sudetenland and agreed to guarantee Czech bordersCzechoslovakia had to complyChamberlain went back to G.B. proclaiming “peace in our time”...thought he could trust Hitler, that Hitler was done...NO NO NO...but G.B. did begin to rearm (not quite that trusting)
42Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia – Early 1939
431939CZECHOSLOVAKIA:March, Czech president called to Germany and threatened by Hitler and GoeringPresident Emil Hacha surrenders CzechoslovakiaG.B. does not now think so highly of Neville ChamberlainEurope began to realize that Poland would be Hitler’s next targetChamberlain assured the Poles that G.B.and France would protect herHitler planned to attack Poland inSeptemberMay, Hitler and Mussolini concluded amilitary alliance, “Pact of Steel”named by Mussolini: each would cometo the other’s aid in the event of war
45Summer 1939 RUSSIA: Hitler did not want a two-front war in August, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a ten-year non-aggression pact also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Treaty)Russian foreign minister Molotov and German foreign minister RibbentropIt contained a secret protocol that divided Poland between the two nationsIRONY??
46German and Soviet Union sign 10-year non-aggression pact in August 1939
49World War II Begins September 1, Germany invades Poland Blitzkrieg?? Britain and France declared war on Germany, September 3Soviet forces attacked from the east on September 17Poland taken in less than one month (surrender on September 27), ceased to be an independent nationPoland carved up between Soviet Union and Germany (annexed), with a section set off as the Government General occupied by a Nazi government
52Treatment of Jewsbefore Poland even surrendered in the war, Jews were humiliated across Polandon the Jewish “Day of Atonement,” Jews were forced to dance, labor…some had their beards shaved off, were beaten, property destroyedstory of Piotrkow, Poland: Jews forced to relieve themselves in the synagogue and clean up the mess with their prayer shawls and Holy Booksheight of harsh treatment on Jewish Holy days, but humiliation and ill-treatment throughout
53Partitioning of Poland In October (1939), Germany annexed Poland’s western and northern region to the Third ReichThe Soviets took the eastern portionsThe middle section, the heartland of Poland, which included the cities of Krakow, Lublin, and the capital, Warsaw, became a German colony known as the GeneralgouvernementPoland’s population in 1939 was about 33 million with 10 per cent Jews (3.3 million)2 million of these Jews were now in Nazi occupied territoriesNazis soon begin deportations of Jews from Western and Northern regions of Poland to the Generalgouvernement
611945 War is ending Death marches back toward Germany 3 deaths in April 1945FDR died at his home in Georgia April 12Mussolini and mistress killed while trying to flee April 28Hitler committed suicide in Berlin bunker April 30V-E Day, May 7, 1945Allied nations occupy GermanyAllies plan to converge on Berlin together, but?????Potsdam Conference
62WWII ends! April 1945 V-E Day, May 7, 1945 V-J Day, August 15, 1945 FDR died at his home in Georgia April 12Mussolini and mistress killed while trying to flee April 28Hitler committed suicide in Berlin bunker April 30V-E Day, May 7, 1945Allied nations occupy GermanyV-J Day, August 15, 1945Enola Gay, Hiroshima (“little boy”)and Nagasaki (“fat man”)Death toll reached 140,000