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IDs / Definitions Mein Kampf Nuremberg Laws 1935 Policy of Appeasement

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1 IDs / Definitions Mein Kampf Nuremberg Laws 1935 Policy of Appeasement
Anschluss lebensraum Kristallnacht Concentration Camp system Munich Pact 10-Year Non-Aggression Pact (Soviet Union and Germany) Allied Powers / Axis Powers Blitzkrieg Stalingrad / El Alamein / D-Day V-E Day / V-J Day Nuremberg Laws Laws against the marriage between Germans and Jews to prevent mixing of bloodlines. Also revoked citizenship of Jews. Policy of Appeasement- Policy taken by the West (France and Britain) to give in to Hitler’s demands in order to avoid European War. Anschluss – Idea of unification of Austria and Germany Lebensraum- Hitler’s call for more living space for the German speaking peoples at the expense of “inferior” Slavs. Kristallnacht- Pogroms carried out against the Jews of Nazi Germany during 1938 Concentration Camp system- Employed by the Nazis to house enemies of the Reich and Jews in order to use them for slave labor or extermination. Munich pact- Agreement between Britain, France and Germany to cede the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany. 10-Year Non Agression pact- Secret agreement between Hitler and Stalin that when Hitler invaded Poland that the USSR would do nothing to intervene. Allied Powers/Axis powers- The Allied powers consisted of the western countries and the Axis was Germany, Italy and Japan. Blitzkrieg- lightning war strategy used by Germany. Stalingrad / El Alamein / D-Day- Three decisive battles won by the Allies that turned the tide of the war between 1942 and 1943. V-E Day / V-J Day- Allied nations occupy Germany/Atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

2 Questions and Imperatives
How did Adolf Hitler deal with the Churches of Germany? The Jews? The Versailles Treaty? Discuss the step-by-step progress of Hitler taking over the nations of Europe. How did the Allied nations plan to deal with WWII? Can the force of ideas sustain a civilization under attack? (Class discussion) Hitler dealt with the churches by appointing one bishop for the Reich and he formed an agreement with them to allow them to continue to freely practice. In return the churches kept silent throughout the persecution of Jews and the genocide. Hitler instituted a multi-step plan to erase the Jews from the Reich and Europe in general. His plans became harsher as time went on. First he stripped them of citizenship, then forbade them to have sexual relationships with non-Jewish Germans. After the Kristallnacht many had fled. However those remaining were formed into ghettos and then sent to concentration camps were extermination and forced labor followed. Hitler began by annexing the country of Austria and completing Anschluss. Next in order to increase the Lebensraum he retook the Sudetenland with the Munich Pact and eventually annexed a large portion of Czechoslovakia. In 1939 Hitler invaded Poland and annexed it. After Poland he took Norway and Denmark, followed by the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Finally he invaded France with Italy and had gained a grasp of much of Europe along with some other Slavic countries. He continued to bomb Great Britain and began his invasion of Russia. The attacks on both of these countries never resulted in full annexation.

3 January 30, 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg names Nazi party Leader, Adolf Hitler the new Chancellor of Germany.

4 Hitler named Chancellor
January 1933 Why What followed Burning of Reichstag Enabling Act Dachau



7 Dachau First concentration camp established for enemies of the Reich – outside Munich, open March 22, 1933

8 Hitler deals with the Churches
Reich Concordat German Christians Confessing Church

9 Hitler deals with the Jews
Hitler’s “war against the Jews” April 1, 1933 boycott Jews lose jobs Jews limited in higher education Jewish immigrants lose citizenship Some Jews leave Germany

10 “War” against the Jews April 1, Boycott of all Jewish stores




14 War Against the Jews 1935 Nuremburg Laws 1938 Kristallnacht
“War” moves beyond Germany Disenfranchise Dehumanize Expropriation Concentration Annihilation

15 Nuremberg Laws The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between "Jews” and "Germans" Prohibited the employment of "German" females under forty-five in Jewish households The Reich Citizenship Law those of German blood (Aryan) are German citizens Not Aryan = state subjects Not Aryan, cannot fly flag of the Reich


17 Mussolini in Italy Mussolini sends troops to discourage Hitler from annexing Austria in 1934 Mussolini was “active” in Europe, tried to tell other European nations that he could not always be the one to control problems (e.g. Hitler’s attempts to expand)

18 “Third Reich” 1934 is rather quiet for the Jews, think that Hitler cannot last, but Hindenburg dies in August and Hitler becomes the Führer, the leader, he names his new reign the “Third Reich”

19 1935 ( ), about 1/10 of the Jews leave Germany, and of those about 1/3 return because they find anti-Semitism strong in other countries Loss of jobs Persecution / murders Nuremberg Laws March 1935, Hitler reimposes peacetime conscription throughout Germany, building up troops (against the Versailles Treaty), secret rearmament had been going on since 1933 May, Jews excluded from the armed forces July, pogrom in Berlin, Jews beaten and shops destroyed

20 Strange Bedfellows? January 7, 1935, Mussolini and Laval sign French-Italian agreement in Rome, French agreeing to give Italy a free hand in Ethiopia Mussolini had colonial ambitions, Italy had been defeated by the Ethiopians in 1890s and Mussolini wanted to conquer them Ethiopian Emperor said if you don’t watch it, Europe will be next G.B. not happy with the Fr-It agreement and when Italy moved on Ethiopia, G.B. imposed economic sanctions and condemned Italy by the end of the year, foreign ministers of G.B. and Fr suggested a compromise such that Italy would receive 2/3 of Ethiopia not well received and Mussolini decided Italy could stand alone against the world, war took place in Ethiopia Hitler supported Mussolini with supplies, at the same time making his own moves Mussolini appreciated Hitler’s help Rome-Berlin Axis (Axis powers)



23 1936 March, Hitler remilitarizes the Rhineland (against the Versailles Treaty) OLYMPICS IN GERMANY November, Germany/Italy form a military alliance and Germany/Japan sign a pact she has to be good, look good to the outside world; Jews can take a breath




27 1937 Buchenwald concentration camp opened, again for those opposed to the Reich


29 1938 MARCH - the ANSCHLUSS Hitler wanted the union (Anschluss) of Austria with Germany (failed in 1934) Hitler pressure Chancellor Schuschnigg of Austria for union, but… Hitler moves his troops to the border which causes Schuschnigg to resign (Austrian Nazi to take his place as Chancellor - Seyss- Inquart) German troops march into Austria greeted by cheering crowds (not the Jews) Great Britain at this point followed a policy of appeasement (P.M. Chamberlain knew that the Austrian union was coming and accepted it) Mussolini, who had kept Hitler from Austria in 1934 now congratulated him (Mussolini realized the strength of the Third Reich and could not have opposed it anyway)



32 Jews of Austria What German Jews experienced in 5 years,
Austrian Jews experienced in days In August, Adolf Eichmann established “Zentralstelle fuer juedische Auswanderung” Jews begin to emigrate

33 1938 SUDETENLAND: Hitler wanted German speaking Sudetenland (3 million people) of Czechoslovakia after the Anschluss, Sudetenland question again arose France had a treaty with Czechoslovakia to help protect her, but G.B. would not support France threats and discussion went back and forth, Czechoslovakia did not want to give up this region September - discussions

34 Against the Versailles Treaty
: secretly rearming 1935: remilitarizes the Rhineland 1935: outwardly rearming takes back land POLICY OF APPEASEMENT

35 Munich Pact P.M. Chamberlain did not want to provoke Hitler in to war and was ready to appease again in the situation of the Sudetenland Munich Conference held in September attended by Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini, and Daladier...German would annex the Sudetenland and agreed to guarantee Czech borders Czechoslovakia had to comply Chamberlain went back to G.B. proclaiming “peace in our time”...thought he could trust Hitler, that Hitler was done...NO NO NO...but G.B. did begin to rearm (not quite that trusting)







42 Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia – Early 1939

43 1939 CZECHOSLOVAKIA: March, Czech president called to Germany and threatened by Hitler and Goering President Emil Hacha surrenders Czechoslovakia G.B. does not now think so highly of Neville Chamberlain Europe began to realize that Poland would be Hitler’s next target Chamberlain assured the Poles that G.B. and France would protect her Hitler planned to attack Poland in September May, Hitler and Mussolini concluded a military alliance, “Pact of Steel” named by Mussolini: each would come to the other’s aid in the event of war


45 Summer 1939 RUSSIA: Hitler did not want a two-front war
in August, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a ten-year non-aggression pact also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Treaty) Russian foreign minister Molotov and German foreign minister Ribbentrop It contained a secret protocol that divided Poland between the two nations IRONY??

46 German and Soviet Union sign 10-year non-aggression pact in August 1939



49 World War II Begins September 1, Germany invades Poland Blitzkrieg??
Britain and France declared war on Germany, September 3 Soviet forces attacked from the east on September 17 Poland taken in less than one month (surrender on September 27), ceased to be an independent nation Poland carved up between Soviet Union and Germany (annexed), with a section set off as the Government General occupied by a Nazi government



52 Treatment of Jews before Poland even surrendered in the war, Jews were humiliated across Poland on the Jewish “Day of Atonement,” Jews were forced to dance, labor…some had their beards shaved off, were beaten, property destroyed story of Piotrkow, Poland: Jews forced to relieve themselves in the synagogue and clean up the mess with their prayer shawls and Holy Books height of harsh treatment on Jewish Holy days, but humiliation and ill-treatment throughout

53 Partitioning of Poland
In October (1939), Germany annexed Poland’s western and northern region to the Third Reich The Soviets took the eastern portions The middle section, the heartland of Poland, which included the cities of Krakow, Lublin, and the capital, Warsaw, became a German colony known as the Generalgouvernement Poland’s population in 1939 was about 33 million with 10 per cent Jews (3.3 million) 2 million of these Jews were now in Nazi occupied territories Nazis soon begin deportations of Jews from Western and Northern regions of Poland to the Generalgouvernement


55 1940-1941 Germany into West Europe England?? America??
Troops in North Africa Attack on Soviet Union Pearl Harbor




59 1942-1943-1944 Wannsee Conference Germany thrown on the defensive
Stalingrad El Alamein Plans for D-Day D-Day


61 1945 War is ending Death marches back toward Germany
3 deaths in April 1945 FDR died at his home in Georgia April 12 Mussolini and mistress killed while trying to flee April 28 Hitler committed suicide in Berlin bunker April 30 V-E Day, May 7, 1945 Allied nations occupy Germany Allies plan to converge on Berlin together, but????? Potsdam Conference

62 WWII ends! April 1945 V-E Day, May 7, 1945 V-J Day, August 15, 1945
FDR died at his home in Georgia April 12 Mussolini and mistress killed while trying to flee April 28 Hitler committed suicide in Berlin bunker April 30 V-E Day, May 7, 1945 Allied nations occupy Germany V-J Day, August 15, 1945 Enola Gay, Hiroshima (“little boy”)and Nagasaki (“fat man”) Death toll reached 140,000




66 DISCUSSION QUESTION: What should we learn from the regime of “Hitler?”

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