Presentation on theme: "Stalin, Mussolini, Franco & Hitler. After the Red Army’s victory (led by Leon Trotsky) over White’s in Russian Civil War, Vladimir Lenin is undisputed."— Presentation transcript:
After the Red Army’s victory (led by Leon Trotsky) over White’s in Russian Civil War, Vladimir Lenin is undisputed leader. Lenin created NEP (New Economic Policy) in 1921: Big industry, banks, mines are run by government. Small businesses (<20 employees) remain private.
Lenin died in 1924. After four year power struggle, Politburo (a 7 member committee ) chose Joseph Stalin, not Trotsky. Stalin’s 5 yr. plan needed to Industrialize USSR. Factories produced arms and machinery. Mines doubled oil prod., steel production quadrupled.
Millions of land owning farmers were sent to Siberia (a frozen wasteland in north Russia). Peasants were sent to work farms. They hoarded food and killed livestock which led to widespread famine.
Stalin was paranoid of everyone. He built Gulags (prison labor camps) mostly in Siberia. Millions were sent there for almost any reason. He had many killed, including old fellow Bolsheviks. Even Trotsky was exiled to Mexico and later killed.
Italy had a very poor economy after WWI In 1919, Mussolini created a group called Fascio di Combatimento (League of Combat), origin of word Fascism: a political idea that glorifies country over individual & strong central gov. led by a dictator. After gaining large following, he threatens March on Rome. King Emmanuel III turns gov. to Mussolini 1922
With his new title, he uses terror by secret police, the Black Shirts (squadristi) to maintain power as he had achieved it. He imprisoned anyone who opposed him 1926 all other political parties outlawed. Police were given authority to arrest anyone who spoke against government. Hitler admires and learns from him.
Collective Security, one of Wilson’s 14 points to stop invading nations. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. China asked for help from League of Nations. None came, Japan withdrew from league. Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. Again, league, Britain & France refused aid to Ethiopia.
Fascist sentiment grew in Spain in early 1930s. Spanish army General Francisco Franco led rebellion against Spanish Republic in 1936. Italy and Germany supported Franco, wanted to test new weapons. USSR supported republic, sent troops and weapons to fight fascists.
70,000 British, French & American volunteer to aid Spain. German & Italian troops and weaponry too much to defeat. It was a “dress rehearsal” for Hitler in WWII. Francisco Franco is new dictator of Spain. Pablo Picasso paints “Guernica” ( p.477 ). It represented destruction/horror of war. New art form called cubism.
After WWI, Germany printed money to pay French. Result = Huge inflation. U.S. aid by investing in German business Economy recovers until U.S. Stock Mkt. Crash in 1929 which led to world-wide depression, again in Germany.
Adolf Hitler was a soldier in WWI, after he joined German Workers Party. By 1921 he controlled the renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) in German Nazi for short. 1923 he attempts government takeover called Beer Hall Putsch. He’s put in jail.
In prison, Hitler writes book translated, “My Struggle”. It is his plan for conquest of Europe. Germany needs Lebensraum (Living Space) and a dictator. It called for extreme nationalism, anti- communism and anti-Semitism (he blamed Jews for Germanys problems).
After release from prison 1924, he expands Nazi party all over Germany. By 1932 it had 800,000 members and was largest party in Reichstag (German Parliament). By this time, German economy horrible. Hitler gained support from many elites. In 1933, Pres. Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor and to create new gov.
Shortly, Reichstag passed Enabling Act which suspended constitution 4 yrs. to deal with country’s problems. In effect, Reichstag appointed Hitler dictator. Soon, Jews removed from Civil Service, prison work camps built for those who opposed gov. Unions, other pol. parties abolished. Hindenburg died 1934. Hitler is now the sole leader or “Fuhrer”
HRE is 1 st, new Germany (1871-1918) is 2 nd. He felt Germans were actual descendants of ancient Romans, mistakenly called Aryan. Maintains control by terror. Brown Shirts, Gestapo & SS led by Heinrich Himmler. Solves unemployment w/ public works projects, producing arms, planes, tanks… 1935 Nuremburg Laws- Jews stripped of citizenship, forbid marriage w/ Germans. Had to wear yellow Stars of David.
Nov. 9, 1938 - Destructive rampage against Jews. Synagogues burned, 1000s of Jewish businesses destroyed. 30k men brought to work camps. 100+ killed. Soon Jews were barred from public buildings and transportation and were told to leave the country.
Hitler appointed Joseph Goebbels as Minister of Enlightenment & Propaganda. He controlled all printed press and radio. Cheap radios were sold, loudspeakers in the streets so everyone could hear Hitler. He produced film called Triumph of the Will made to make Hitler look like a god.
1936 German/Italian Alliance = Axis. Later that year Japan joined (all to fight communism) German troops marched into the Rhineland (mostly Alsace-Lorraine) March 1936, it violated Versailles Treaty. Britain used policy of appeasement (didn’t oppose what seemed to be reasonable demands by Germany). To avoid war, they allowed a few concessions.
Anschluss = 1938, German troops are welcomed (by most except Jews) into Austria. Hitler (born in Austria) annexed it Germany. Later in 1938, Hitler demanded Sudetenland (a region of Czech., mostly German ). Munich Conference – British P.M. Neville Chamberlain meets w/ Hitler to stop to no avail. He gives in, more appeasement. Soon, he took all of Czechoslovakia.
Hitler signs agreement with Stalin in Aug. 1939 not to invade each other. Offer gave Stalin eastern Poland and Baltic States. It also announced Hitler’s intent to invade Poland.