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Europe Between the Wars:

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1 Europe Between the Wars: 1920-1939
Chapter 24, Chapter 26 section 1

2 Problems After the War Reparations Crisis Weak League of Nations
Germany had to pay reparations for WWI Payments were too big, Germany couldn’t afford them France occupied parts of Germany in retaliation Germany still refused to pay, workers went on strike to protest French action Hyper-inflation in Germany Weak League of Nations US never joined, League never worked like it was supposed to


4 Mid-1920’s Things Seem to Get Better
Dawes Plan US plan to fix the reparations crisis in Germany US bankers lent Germans money, Germans used that money to pay UK and France, UK and France used that money to pay back war loans to Americans Worked (at least for a while), economies of US, and Europe boomed US and Europe tied to each other economically through loans (would be a problem in the future) International Agreements Locarno Pact 1925—Germany agreed not to attack its neighbors again Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928—63 nations signed a treaty to never go to war again (unless in self defense) Washington Naval Treaty—major world powers agreed to limit the size of their navies Germany joins League of Nations 1926

5 The Great Depression What was it?
Massive worldwide economic downturn Why is it called the GREAT Depression? It was incredibly severe, economic production dropped dramatically It effected virtually every country in the world It lasted a long time (over 10 years in some places) When was it? Began and ended at different times in different places 1929 began in the US 1930 spread to rest of world Most countries recovered by late 1930’s, US didn’t recover until 1940 What caused it?

6 Causes of the Great Depression
Long Term Causes International economic boom was dependent upon borrowed money Why is this a problem? Overproduction of goods Factories all over the world were producing more goods then people could or wanted to buy Low wages Workers’ wages hadn’t gone up very much since the end of WWI, couldn’t afford to buy the products they were making Trade barriers In an effort to protect their native businesses from foreign competition many countries had laws and taxes that made international trade very expensive/impossible Short Term Cause Collapse of the US Stock Market in 1929 led to crisis Crisis spread to US banks then the US economy Crisis spread from US banks to European/world banks due to the Dawes Plan and its system of international loans Crisis spread from European/world to the European/world economy

7 Responses to the Depression
Growth of the power of the government USA: New Deal Scandinavia: Social Welfare State Italy, Germany, Soviet Union—dictatorial regimes and state control of the economy Keynesian Economic Theory Use the spending power of the government to jump start the economy Popular in the US and Western Europe after the Great Depression until today Collapse of Democratic Governments, Rise of Dictators Depression caused democratic governments throughout Europe to collapse Germany, Poland, Romania, Baltic States, Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Albania Why do you think economic crisis would help lead to the rise of dictators?

8 The Rise of Dictatorships: Old and New
Authoritarian Dictatorships (Old) One person in control, used military power to control the government of a country, forced the people to follow his/her orders As long as you didn’t cause problems for the dictator/government you were pretty much left alone Most European dictators were authoritarian dictators (Spain, Portugal, Greece, etc.) Totalitarian Dictatorships (New) The state/government controlled every aspect of a person’s life totally Economy, government, society, culture were all controlled by the state Public, social, and private spheres all influenced/controlled by the state People were willing participants in totalitarian governments Individual rights, desires, identity came second behind the state Usually there was one charismatic leader that the people entrusted with control of the state Usually there was an enemy or a common goal created to motivate the people Examples=Nazi Germany, Communist Soviet Union, and Fascist Italy


10 Totalitarian States: Italy, Germany, USSR
Charismatic leader: Mussolini Main ideology: Fascism (extreme nationalism, and militarism) Main enemy/fear: Communism, socialism, anarchy, anger over not getting more land from the Versailles Peace Treaty Main Goal: Restoring Italy to the glory of ancient Roman Empire Germany ( ) Charismatic leader: Hitler Main ideology: Nazism (German version of Fascism, nationalism, militarism) Main enemy/fear: Communism, Jewish Conspiracy, anger over WWI and the Versailles Treaty Main Goal: Revenge for WWI, living space for the German nation USSR ( ) Charismatic leader: Stalin (later others after 1952) Main ideology: Communism Main enemy/fear: Invasion by western capitalist countries Main Goal: Modernization of Russia, eventual worldwide communist revolution

11 Mussolini’s Rise to Power
Italian soldier during WWI Angered over the peace settlement (wanted Italy to gain more land) Founded Fascist Party Glorification of the military Extreme nationalism Fascists gained in popularity during the economic and political crises of the early 1920s 1922 March on Rome—Mussolini made Prime Minister Gradually Mussolini rolled back civil rights and freedoms and built a totalitarian dictatorship

12 Hitler’s Rise to Power National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party
Founded by former WWI soldiers in Germany (Hitler was a WWI veteran) Incredibly nationalistic, racist Hitler joined soon became leader of the Nazi Party Beer Hall Putsch 1923 Hitler tried to recreate Mussolini’s march on Rome in Germany Defeated by the police, arrested, sent to jail In prison wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) outlined goals of the Nazi party Obscurity for the Nazi party Rise to Power due to Great Depression 1933-Nazis won the most votes in parliamentary elections, Hitler becomes Chancellor Reichstag Fire, Nazis blame communists, use the fire as an excuse to pass laws (Enabling Acts) that give Hitler dictatorial powers, infringe upon personal rights and freedoms of German citizens

13 Origins of World War II in Europe and Asia
Big Questions: What were the chain of events that led to the outbreak of WWII? What could/should the democracies of the world (US, UK, France) have done to prevent Nazi Germany and Japan’s rise to power and the outbreak of WWII? Should democracies like the US be willing to get involved and even fight a war to help protect other democracies around the world?

14 Spanish Civil War: One Less Democracy in Europe
Spain was a democratic republic—very weak and unstable Spanish Republic was dominated by very radical groups (socialists, communists, etc.) More conservative groups didn’t like this (Catholic Church, military, business owners, etc.) 1936 war broke out, supporters of the Republic (Loyalists) vs. opponents of the Republic (Nationalists or Fascists) led by General Francisco Franco Other fascist countries (Germany, Italy) sent soldiers, money, equipment to help the Spanish fascists Soviet Union sent money and supplies to help the Loyalists Democratic countries (US, France, Britain) and the League of Nations did nothing to support the Spanish Republican government 1939—Fascists won the war, Spanish Republic disbanded, Franco established a dictatorship in Spain, friendly to Hitler and Mussolini Should the US, Britain, and France have done more to help out another democracy?

15 For Whom The Bell Tolls John Donne 1571-1632
No man is an island Entire of itself. Each is a piece of the continent, A part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less. As well as if a promontory were. As well as if a manor of thine own Or of thine friend’s were. Each man’s death diminishes me, For I am involved in mankind. Therefore, send not to know For whom the bell tolls, It tolls for thee.

16 Origins of WWII in Europe: Nazi Aggression
– Hitler begins to rearm/rebuild the German military in violation of the Versailles Treaty 1935 – Hitler sends his military into the Rhineland—violation of the Versailles Treaty 1937 – Hitler takes over Austria, makes it part of Germany (Anschluss)— violation of the Versailles Treaty 1938 – Hitler demands part of neighboring Czechoslovakia where lots of Germans live (the Sudetenland) threatens to go to war Munich Conference, appeasement – France, Britain give in 1938 – Hitler occupies the Sudetenland 1938 – Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia (violates Munich agreement) 1939 – Hitler demands part of Poland where lots of Germans live (Polish Corridor) threatens war Britain and France don’t give in Hitler invades Poland, September 1939 – War World II begins Should the US, Britain, and France done something to help Austria, Czechoslovakia?


18 Political Cartoon from the 1930’s

19 Origins of WWII: Japanese Expansion in Asia
1931-Mukden Incident—Japanese took control of Manchuria 1937-Japan declares war on China 1940-Japan begins to seize control of French Colonies in Indochina (modern day Vietnam) US orders Japan to leave Indochina, places a trade embargo on Japan, no oil no scrap iron Japan’s choices 1-leave Indochina 2-stay in Indochina but stop fighting in China and other places 3-stay in Indochina, keep fighting, find a new source for raw materials (Indonesia, Malaysia, etc.) Japanese realized that invading Indonesia would inevitably lead the US to declare war, wanted to get in the first strike, Pearl Harbor Dec 1941—Japan launches surprise attack on US Fleet in Pearl Harbor 1941—US enters WWII declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on US


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