Presentation on theme: "Europe Between the Wars:"— Presentation transcript:
1Europe Between the Wars: 1920-1939 Chapter 24, Chapter 26 section 1
2Problems After the War Reparations Crisis Weak League of Nations Germany had to pay reparations for WWIPayments were too big, Germany couldn’t afford themFrance occupied parts of Germany in retaliationGermany still refused to pay, workers went on strike to protest French actionHyper-inflation in GermanyWeak League of NationsUS never joined, League never worked like it was supposed to
4Mid-1920’s Things Seem to Get Better Dawes PlanUS plan to fix the reparations crisis in GermanyUS bankers lent Germans money, Germans used that money to pay UK and France, UK and France used that money to pay back war loans to AmericansWorked (at least for a while), economies of US, and Europe boomedUS and Europe tied to each other economically through loans (would be a problem in the future)International AgreementsLocarno Pact 1925—Germany agreed not to attack its neighbors againKellogg-Briand Pact 1928—63 nations signed a treaty to never go to war again (unless in self defense)Washington Naval Treaty—major world powers agreed to limit the size of their naviesGermany joins League of Nations 1926
5The Great Depression What was it? Massive worldwide economic downturnWhy is it called the GREAT Depression?It was incredibly severe, economic production dropped dramaticallyIt effected virtually every country in the worldIt lasted a long time (over 10 years in some places)When was it?Began and ended at different times in different places1929 began in the US1930 spread to rest of worldMost countries recovered by late 1930’s, US didn’t recover until 1940What caused it?
6Causes of the Great Depression Long Term CausesInternational economic boom was dependent upon borrowed moneyWhy is this a problem?Overproduction of goodsFactories all over the world were producing more goods then people could or wanted to buyLow wagesWorkers’ wages hadn’t gone up very much since the end of WWI, couldn’t afford to buy the products they were makingTrade barriersIn an effort to protect their native businesses from foreign competition many countries had laws and taxes that made international trade very expensive/impossibleShort Term CauseCollapse of the US Stock Market in 1929 led to crisisCrisis spread to US banks then the US economyCrisis spread from US banks to European/world banks due to the Dawes Plan and its system of international loansCrisis spread from European/world to the European/world economy
7Responses to the Depression Growth of the power of the governmentUSA: New DealScandinavia: Social Welfare StateItaly, Germany, Soviet Union—dictatorial regimes and state control of the economyKeynesian Economic TheoryUse the spending power of the government to jump start the economyPopular in the US and Western Europe after the Great Depression until todayCollapse of Democratic Governments, Rise of DictatorsDepression caused democratic governments throughout Europe to collapseGermany, Poland, Romania, Baltic States, Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Spain, Portugal, AlbaniaWhy do you think economic crisis would help lead to the rise of dictators?
8The Rise of Dictatorships: Old and New Authoritarian Dictatorships (Old)One person in control, used military power to control the government of a country, forced the people to follow his/her ordersAs long as you didn’t cause problems for the dictator/government you were pretty much left aloneMost European dictators were authoritarian dictators (Spain, Portugal, Greece, etc.)Totalitarian Dictatorships (New)The state/government controlled every aspect of a person’s life totallyEconomy, government, society, culture were all controlled by the statePublic, social, and private spheres all influenced/controlled by the statePeople were willing participants in totalitarian governmentsIndividual rights, desires, identity came second behind the stateUsually there was one charismatic leader that the people entrusted with control of the stateUsually there was an enemy or a common goal created to motivate the peopleExamples=Nazi Germany, Communist Soviet Union, and Fascist Italy
10Totalitarian States: Italy, Germany, USSR Charismatic leader: MussoliniMain ideology: Fascism (extreme nationalism, and militarism)Main enemy/fear: Communism, socialism, anarchy, anger over not getting more land from the Versailles Peace TreatyMain Goal: Restoring Italy to the glory of ancient Roman EmpireGermany ( )Charismatic leader: HitlerMain ideology: Nazism (German version of Fascism, nationalism, militarism)Main enemy/fear: Communism, Jewish Conspiracy, anger over WWI and the Versailles TreatyMain Goal: Revenge for WWI, living space for the German nationUSSR ( )Charismatic leader: Stalin (later others after 1952)Main ideology: CommunismMain enemy/fear: Invasion by western capitalist countriesMain Goal: Modernization of Russia, eventual worldwide communist revolution
11Mussolini’s Rise to Power Italian soldier during WWIAngered over the peace settlement (wanted Italy to gain more land)Founded Fascist PartyGlorification of the militaryExtreme nationalismFascists gained in popularity during the economic and political crises of the early 1920s1922 March on Rome—Mussolini made Prime MinisterGradually Mussolini rolled back civil rights and freedoms and built a totalitarian dictatorship
12Hitler’s Rise to Power National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party Founded by former WWI soldiers in Germany (Hitler was a WWI veteran)Incredibly nationalistic, racistHitler joined soon became leader of the Nazi PartyBeer Hall Putsch 1923Hitler tried to recreate Mussolini’s march on Rome in GermanyDefeated by the police, arrested, sent to jailIn prison wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) outlined goals of the Nazi partyObscurity for the Nazi partyRise to Power due to Great Depression1933-Nazis won the most votes in parliamentary elections, Hitler becomes ChancellorReichstag Fire, Nazis blame communists, use the fire as an excuse to pass laws (Enabling Acts) that give Hitler dictatorial powers, infringe upon personal rights and freedoms of German citizens
13Origins of World War II in Europe and Asia Big Questions:What were the chain of events that led to the outbreak of WWII?What could/should the democracies of the world (US, UK, France) have done to prevent Nazi Germany and Japan’s rise to power and the outbreak of WWII?Should democracies like the US be willing to get involved and even fight a war to help protect other democracies around the world?
14Spanish Civil War: One Less Democracy in Europe Spain was a democratic republic—very weak and unstableSpanish Republic was dominated by very radical groups (socialists, communists, etc.)More conservative groups didn’t like this (Catholic Church, military, business owners, etc.)1936 war broke out, supporters of the Republic (Loyalists) vs. opponents of the Republic (Nationalists or Fascists) led by General Francisco FrancoOther fascist countries (Germany, Italy) sent soldiers, money, equipment to help the Spanish fascistsSoviet Union sent money and supplies to help the LoyalistsDemocratic countries (US, France, Britain) and the League of Nations did nothing to support the Spanish Republican government1939—Fascists won the war, Spanish Republic disbanded, Franco established a dictatorship in Spain, friendly to Hitler and MussoliniShould the US, Britain, and France have done more to help out another democracy?
15For Whom The Bell Tolls John Donne 1571-1632 No man is an island Entire of itself. Each is a piece of the continent, A part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less. As well as if a promontory were. As well as if a manor of thine own Or of thine friend’s were. Each man’s death diminishes me, For I am involved in mankind. Therefore, send not to know For whom the bell tolls, It tolls for thee.
16Origins of WWII in Europe: Nazi Aggression – Hitler begins to rearm/rebuild the German military in violation of the Versailles Treaty1935 – Hitler sends his military into the Rhineland—violation of the Versailles Treaty1937 – Hitler takes over Austria, makes it part of Germany (Anschluss)— violation of the Versailles Treaty1938 – Hitler demands part of neighboring Czechoslovakia where lots of Germans live (the Sudetenland) threatens to go to warMunich Conference, appeasement – France, Britain give in1938 – Hitler occupies the Sudetenland1938 – Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia (violates Munich agreement)1939 – Hitler demands part of Poland where lots of Germans live (Polish Corridor) threatens warBritain and France don’t give inHitler invades Poland, September 1939 – War World II beginsShould the US, Britain, and France done something to help Austria, Czechoslovakia?
19Origins of WWII: Japanese Expansion in Asia 1931-Mukden Incident—Japanese took control of Manchuria1937-Japan declares war on China1940-Japan begins to seize control of French Colonies in Indochina (modern day Vietnam)US orders Japan to leave Indochina, places a trade embargo on Japan, no oil no scrap ironJapan’s choices1-leave Indochina2-stay in Indochina but stop fighting in China and other places3-stay in Indochina, keep fighting, find a new source for raw materials (Indonesia, Malaysia, etc.)Japanese realized that invading Indonesia would inevitably lead the US to declare war, wanted to get in the first strike, Pearl HarborDec 1941—Japan launches surprise attack on US Fleet in Pearl Harbor1941—US enters WWII declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on US