Rules Everyone speaks Everyone gives their opinions and why No one interrupts Everyone listens to each other
Hitler was always destined to come to power The circumstances in Germany were the most important reason why Hitler came to power The Communists had an equal chance of coming to power instead of Hitler
Spartacist Uprising, Berlin 1919 Left wing revolutionaries (Communists), inspired by the 1917 Russian Revolution. Led by Liebknecht and Luxemburg, they tried to seize control of Berlin. They were easily defeated by right wing Freikorps units.
Germany humiliated by the War Guilt Clause, weakened by limits placed on its armed forces, burdened by a huge war debt (reparations) and reduced by losses in land.
The Freikorps tried to take over the government before the Social Democrats, under pressure from UK, France & USA, could ban them. Forced to give up by a General Strike of the workers called by President Ebert.
When the Germans fell behind on their reparation payments to France, the French army occupied Germany’s main industrial region. In response the German government told the workers to go on strike (Passive Resistance).
When the German government ran out of money it simply printed more, which led to a massive drop in its value and created economic turmoil.
While the government appeared weak, the Nazis attempted to seize power by force in Bavaria, where they were founded. Their plan to take the state government hostage and march on the city centre was foiled by the army & police.
The German economy began to recover thanks to a massive loan from the USA, negotiated by Stresemann.
Britain, Italy & France reach agreements with Germany on several issues - established better diplomatic relations, largely due to work of Stresemann.
By being allowed to join this international organisation, Germany was being treated as an equal by its former enemies (Stresemann’s diplomacy again).
The German economy had finally recovered after World War One. In 1928 industrial production was higher than it had been before World War One. In 1929 the Young Plan (another US financial plan) let Germany off most of the remaining reparation payments.
Financial panic in the USA led to a worldwide economic depression, which hit Germany especially hard as it depended on US loans: over 6 million unemployed by 1932.
Many Germans turned to extreme parties such as the Nazis and Communists (KPD) out of desperation. Hitler & Goebbels’ propaganda campaigns and SA violence give them more support than any other party in the Reichstag.
Persuaded by his friend, von Papen, President Hindenburg sacks von Schleicher and appoints Hitler. There is no one else left to choose and Hindenburg and von Papen believe they can control Hitler, using him to destroy the KPD (which they hate more) and solve the economic crisis.
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