Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK 1.Which member countries left the League in the 1930’s? Why? 2.Why did disarmament fail? List two reasons! 3.How did the Abyssinian Crisis show."— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK 1.Which member countries left the League in the 1930’s? Why? 2.Why did disarmament fail? List two reasons! 3.How did the Abyssinian Crisis show the failure of the League of Nations? 4.List FIVE main reasons the League of Nations failed. Then, rank them from 1 – 5 (1 is the biggest problem!) 5.THINKER: How did the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the Italian invasion of Abyssinia effect Hitler and his desire to expand?
Failure of Disarmament
Causes of WWII in Europe Hitler’s War
The Alter Hof in Munich: Adolf Hitler (1914)
Hitler in WWI; 1915
Rise of Hitler 1919: Hitler joined Nazi party (55 th member) In 1921, Hitler became leader of the Nazi Party. Developed the “25- point programme” 1923: Hitler and his Nazis attempted to seize power in a coup (Munich Beer Hall Putsch) 25 Point Programme 2.We demand equality of rights for the German people in respect to the other nations; repeal of the peace treaty of Versailles 3.We demand land and territory (colonies) for the sustenance of our people, and colonization for our surplus population. 4.Only a member of the race can be a citizen. A member of the race can only be one who is of German blood, without consideration of creed. Consequently no Jew can be a member of the race 8.Any further immigration of non-citizens is to be prevented. 15.We demand an expansion on a large scale of old age welfare. 16.We demand the creation of a healthy middle class 20.The state is to be responsible for a fundamental reconstruction of our whole national education program, to enable every capable and industrious German to obtain higher education 24.We demand freedom of religion for all religious denominations within the state so long as they do not endanger its existence or oppose the moral senses of the Germanic race. It combats the Jewish-materialistic spirit within and around us: The good of the state before the good of the individual. 25.For the execution of all of this we demand the formation of a strong central power in the Reich. Unlimited authority of the central parliament over the whole Reich and its organizations in general.
Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch; 1923
Rise of Hitler 1924: Hitler imprisoned Mein Kampf: Hitler’s autobiography which showed his political beliefs (“my struggle”) When the Depression struck Germany in 1929, the government could not help the 6 million unemployed workers. Hitler took advantage of the discontent to appeal to the German people. He promised to rebuild Germany’s economy if they brought him to power.
Nazi Party Election Results DateVotes%Seats in ReichstagBackground May 19241,918, Hitler in prison Dec , Hitler is released from prison May , Sept 19306,409, After the financial crisis July ,745, After Hitler was candidate for presidency November ,737, March ,277, During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany
Why did people support Hitler? Promised to get Germany out of the Depression and restore hope. Used the Jews as scapegoats, blaming all problems on them. Tear up the Treaty of Versailles to make Germany great again! Farmers – higher prices for their produce Unemployed – Jobs building public projects (pg.113) Middle Class – restore profits of small businesses and savings
Hitler in Power January 1933: Named Chancellor of Germany February 1933: persuaded German president (Paul von Hindenburg) to suspend civil rights & increase his power October 1933: Germany withdrawals from League of Nations June 1934: demanded military swear allegiance to him August 1934: Hindenburg dies, Hitler abolishes title of President & declares himself the Führer, or supreme leader Hitler is now the totalitarian dictator of Germany 1934: Starts program of rearmament (pg.115) Nuremburg Laws (1935): defined German races
Time Magazine’s “Man of the Year”
Hitler’s Aggression After rebuilding Germany’s army, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland. In 1936, Hitler formed an alliance with Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini. This alliance created the Axis Powers.
Review Why did Hitler form an alliance with Mussolini? How did Hitler violate the Treaty of Versailles? During this entire period of Hitler’s aggression, the U.S. officially proclaimed neutrality. Make a prediction To what extent was the U.S. actually neutral? Why was it so important to maintain neutrality? Explain!
Video: Over the Edge To learn more about Hitler’s aggression in Europe leading to WWII, we are going to watch the episode “Over the Edge” from the series The Century: America’s Time. As you watch, continue with notes/timeline on Hitler’s expansion. We will stop throughout the movie to discuss key events!
Hitler’s Aggression In March 1938, Hitler proclaimed that Austria was part of Germany Sent troops into Austria to make it official In September 1938, Hitler occupied the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The Sudetenland had a large German population and Hitler justified his actions by saying: “I was satisfying the wish of all Germans living there to become part of Germany”
Discussion How did citizens in Austria and the Sudetenland respond to Hitler’s takeover? Why? As you know, both Hitler and Chamberlain attended the Munich Conference. What decision was reached here? Why did Chamberlain agree to this?
Appeasement Munich Conference: Britain and France agree to allow Hitler’s control of the Sudetenland if he promised to stay out of the rest of Czechoslovakia. Eagar to avoid another war, the leaders of Great Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasement. Appeasement: giving in to the demands of a nation in the hope of maintaining peace.
Discussion Why did Britain adopt the policy of appeasement? List three reasons! Why do you think France agreed to appeasement, even though they were more vulnerable and threatened by German expansion? How did the fear of communism contribute to appeasement? Analyze the political cartoon on page 123. How does it relate to appeasement and its effect on the USSR?
Kristallnacht “Night of the Broken Glass” November 9, 1938: Nazis in Germany and Austria destroyed Jewish stores, houses and synagogues. Cause: German diplomat was killed by a Jew in Berlin Outcome: 91 Jews were killed & 30,000 were arrested and relocated to concentration camps. Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna alone) and over 7,000 Jewish businesses were destroyed
Discussion Why did Hitler form an alliance with Stalin?
Hitler’s Aggression 5 ½ months after the Munich Conference, Hitler broke his promise and invaded Czechoslovakia. In August 1939, Hitler signed the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact: neither country would attack the other. They secretly agreed to divide Poland (Germany had short-term agreement w/Poland) By securing his eastern border against Soviet attack, Hitler could focus on the rest of Europe. Could use Poland as a launch pad for an invasion of the USSR
Start of WWII On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Used blitzkrieg: “lightening war” – attack combining air and land forces. Great Britain and France promised to defend Poland so they declared war on Germany. Allies: Great Britain and France
Hitler Crushes Europe In April 1940, Hitler used his powerful fighting tactics to capture Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. France was surrounded, but protected themselves using the Maginot Line. Maginot Line: armed steel concrete bunkers built after WWI, stretching across the German border. In May 1940, Hitler sent troops around the line. France surrendered and sent their citizens to Britain.
German expansion by 1940
Battle of Britain After Germany’s victories in Eastern Europe & France, there was only one major power left in western Europe to fight. Great Britain. Germany made plans to invade Great Britain. However, Great Britain’s Royal Air Force engaged German forces in defense of the nation. Battle of Britain- largest air assault in history. German air force bombed British cities & industrial centers. Yet, could not force a surrender. Great Britain held their ground until help came from U.S.
Lend-Lease Act Prime Minister Churchill confessed to FDR that Britain was nearly bankrupt and needed more American equipment. FDR provided war supplies to Britain without any payment in return. Lend-Lease Act: The President could aid any nation whose defense was vital to U.S. security. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union, FDR extended the Lend-Lease Act to the Soviets. By the end of WWII, the U.S. had loaned or given away $49 billion of aid to over 40 nations.
German expansion by 1942
Discussion In The Origins of the Second World War, historian AJP Taylor disagreed that WWII was Hitler’s war, and instead suggests that it had just as much to do with the failures of European statesman. Do you agree? Explain! Review the causes of WWII by country (pg. 126). Which one of the major European powers (Britain, France, USSR, Italy) is most responsible for WWII? Explain!