Hitler and His Views Adolf Hitler’s ideas were based – on racism – and German nationalism.
Hitler and His Views Adolf Hitler entered politics by joining the German Workers’ Party in Munich. Hitler took over the party, which was renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or Nazi for short. After an unsuccessful revolt against the government, Hitler was imprisoned and wrote Mein Kampf, (My Struggle) which endorsed German nationalism, strong anti-Semitism, and anti-communism.
Hitler and His Views Hitler expanded the Nazi Party, and it soon became the largest party in the Reichstag. Hitler won support of the right-wing elites of Germany who, in 1933, pressured the president to allow Hitler to become chancellor and create a new government. The Enabling Act was passed, allowing the government to ignore the constitution for four years while it issued laws to deal with the country’s problems.
Hitler and His Views With Hitler acting as dictator, the Nazi Party quickly brought all institutions under their control, purged the Jews from civil service jobs, and set up concentration camps. When the president died in 1934, Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Hitler used – anti-Semitism, – economic policy, – and propaganda to build a Nazi state.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Hitler dreamed of creating a purely Aryan state that would dominate the world. To achieve his goal of a Third Reich, Hitler and the Nazis used economic policies, mass demonstrations, organizations, and terror. Heinrich Himmler directed the Schutzstaffeln, commonly called SS, using terror and Nazi ideology to promote the Aryan master race.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Hitler created public works projects to help with the high unemployment rates and end the Depression. The Nazis used mass demonstrations and meetings, such as the Nuremberg party rallies, to gain support and evoke excitement from the German people.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 Under Hitler’s regime, women were seen as wives and mothers who would bear the children destined to see the success of the Aryan race. Women were only allowed to work in gender- specific jobs such as nursing and social work, but were highly encouraged to stay at home. The Nazi Party began expanding their anti- Semitism policies to anti-Jewish boycotts and new racial laws such as the Nuremberg laws.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 The Nuremberg Laws: – defined anyone with one Jewish grandparent as a Jew – excluded Jews from German citizenship – stripped Jews of their civil rights – forbade marriages between German citizens and Jews – forbade Jews from teaching in schools and participating in the arts – required Jews to wear yellow Stars of David and carry identification cards
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 On November 9, 1938, a more violent phase began with Kristallnacht. Nazis burned synagogues and Jewish businesses and sent 30,000 Jews to concentration camps. After Kristallnacht, Jews were barred from all public transportation and public buildings, and were prohibited from owning or working in any retail store. The SS encouraged Jews to “emigrate from Germany.”
Mass Culture and Leisure Hitler used radio and movies as propaganda tools to promote Nazism
Mass Culture and Leisure The Nazi regime encouraged people to listen to the radio because it offered an opportunity to reach the masses. Hitler discovered his speeches were just as influential over the radio as they were in person.
Mass Culture and Leisure Films were also used to reach large groups of people. Films were specially created by the Propaganda Ministry to spread the Nazi message. The Nazi regime used leisure time as another way to control the people by offering concerts, operas, films, guided tours, and sporting events.
Arts and Science The art, literature, and scientific breakthroughs produced after World War I both embraced the past and reflected uncertainty for the future.
Arts and Science Many artists continued to follow the styles and trends of post-World War I, although new styles did emerge such as the Dada movement and surrealism. Dada artist Hannah Hoch used photomontage to show women’s roles in the new mass culture.
Arts and Science Salvador Dalí, a well known surrealist, used everyday objects in unfamiliar settings, creating a strange world where the irrational became visible. Hitler and the Nazis used art to depict heroic Germans. In literature, the search for the unconscious became popular. Writers used techniques to show their characters’ innermost thoughts.
Arts and Science James Joyce used this style in Ulysses, which tells the story of one day in the life of ordinary citizens in Dublin. In Germany, Hermann Hesse’s novels focused on the spiritual loneliness of modern human beings in a mechanized urban society. In science, Albert Einstein’s work in physics continued into the 1930s.
Arts and Science Newtonian physics encouraged people to believe that all phenomena could be defined and predicted until 1927, when German physicist Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle shook this belief. The uncertainty principle represented a new world view based on uncertainty.