Presentation on theme: "Www.educationforum.co.uk. Deep anger about the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles created an underlying bitterness and desire for revenge."— Presentation transcript:
Deep anger about the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles created an underlying bitterness and desire for revenge to which Hitler’s viciousness and expansionism appealed, so they gave him support.
Weaknesses in the Constitution crippled the government. There were many changes of government none of which were able to solve Germany’s problems In fact, there were many people in Germany who wanted a return to dictatorship. When the crisis came in 1929–1933 – there was no one who was prepared or able to fight to stop Hitler.
The financial support of wealthy both inside Germany and abroad gave Hitler the money to run his propaganda and election campaigns. Businessmen feared communism and knew that if they supported Hitler he would protect their wealth and privilege
Many industrials bankrolled the Nazis, including allegedly: · Hjalmar Schacht, Head of the Reichsbank, organised fund-raising parties for Hitler. · Fritz von Thyssen, the German steel businessman · Alfred Krupp, the owner of Krupp steel firm · Emil Kirdorf, the coal businessman · IG Faben, the German chemicals firm, gave half the funds for the 1933 elections · The German car firm Opel (a subsidiary of General Motors) · Schroeder Bank – on Jan. 3, 1933, Reinhard Schroeder met Hitler and asked him to form a government. And many foreign firms including: · Henry Ford of Ford Motors. Hitler borrowed passages from Ford's book The International Jew to use in Mein Kampf and had a picture of Ford on the wall of his office. · Union Banking Corporation, New York (George Bush’s great-grandfather was president of the Corporation) · WA Harriman and Co., the American shipping and railway company (George Bush’s grandfather was vice-president) · Irenee du Pont, head of the American firm General Motors; he advocated the creation of a super-race by spinal injections to enhance children of ‘pure’ blood.
Hitler promised something to most groups in Germany He promised workers jobs He promised business protection from Communism He promised to restore German pride and to stand up to foreign countries He scapegoated the Jews for all Germany’s problems He promised strong and decisive leadership Well funded Nazi propaganda persuaded many Germans that Hitler was there best hope
The Storm troopers attacked Jews and people who opposed Hitler. Many opponents kept quiet simply because they were scared of being murdered – and, if they were, the judges simply let the Storm troopers go free The SA both caused violence on the streets AND seem to offer the prospect of discipline and order in the future
Hitler was a brilliant speaker, and his eyes had a peculiar power over people. He was a good organiser and politician. He was a driven, unstable man, who believed that he had been called by God to become dictator of Germany and rule the world. This kept him going when other people might have given up. His self-belief persuaded people to believe in him. For many he was a messiah like figure
After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the US called in its loans to Germany, and the German economy collapsed. The Number of unemployed grew; people starved on the streets. In the crisis, people wanted someone to blame, and looked to extreme solutions – Hitler offered them both, and Nazi success in the elections grew. Germans turned to Nazism because they were desperate. The number of Nazi seats in the Reichstag rose from 12 in 1928 to 230 in July 1932
In November 1932 elections the Nazis again failed to get a majority of seats in the Reichstag. Their share of the vote fell – from 230 seats to only 196. Hitler contemplated suicide. But then he was rescued by Hindenburg. Franz von Papen (a friend of Hindenburg) was Chancellor, but he could not get enough support in the Reichstag. Hindenburg and von Papen were having to govern by emergency decree under Article 48 of the Constitution. They offered Hitler the post of vice- Chancellor if he promised to support them. Hitler refused – he demanded to be made Chancellor. So Von Papen and Hindenburg took a risk. On 30 January 1933 Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor. He thought he could control Hitler – how wrong he was. In the end, Hitler did not TAKE power at all – he was given it.