Presentation on theme: "How did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany in 1933?"— Presentation transcript:
How did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany in 1933?
Learning objective – to understand the sequence of events that led to Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933. I can describe the key events that led to Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor. Grade D I can explain the key events that led to Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor. Grade B I can explain and the importance of the key events that led to Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor. Grade A and A*
Starter This word cloud is in the shape of Franz von Papen, Chancellor of Germany in 1932. Choose three words, look out for them in the presentation and write why each word is significant in this lesson.
Paul von Hindenburg Elected President in 1925. Took emergency Presidential powers under Article 48. Appointed a series of Conservative Chancellors. Disliked Hitler – thought he was a jumped up ‘Bavarian Corporal’
Adolf Hitler Leader of the Nazi Party – from 1930 a significant electoral force. Demanded the position of Chancellor from 1932. The most charismatic German politician of the early 1930s. Consistently gave popular messages of wanting to destroy the Treaty of Versailles.
Franz von Papen Rich, Catholic Nobleman. Member of the Centre Party. Appointed Chancellor in 1932 when Brüning was sacked. Thought he could control and manipulate Hitler.
Kurt von Schleicher Former army general. Key advisor to President Hindenburg. Chancellor after von Papen in November 1932. Wanted to form a compromise government of elements of left and right, bypassing Hitler.
The breakthrough 1930 Election The 1930 Election saw the Nazis become the second largest party in the Reichstag with 107 seats. This result was based mainly on the popularity of Hitler’s campaign message of solidarity and national unity. Although, very little concrete ideas were shared.
Growing disillusionment towards German democracy There was a growing view from the elite that democracy produced weak governments. What was needed was authoritarian government with a strong leader to get Germany out of its troubles. On the other hand, the German people just saw a gang of squabbling politicians more interested in their own positions rather than solutions to Germany’s problems.
Nazi messages The Nazis exploited the fear and discontent in Germany. Their ‘Twenty Five Points’ became especially attractive as they were strong and decisive. Particularly successful were the message of destroying the Treaty of Versailles, offering strong leadership and blaming the ‘November Criminals’ for Germany’s ills.
Nazi propaganda The Nazis relied upon slogans and images rather than detailed policies to win support. They flooded public places with posters, leaflets and newspapers. These would contain simple but effective messages. If a message was unpopular it would be dropped.
Nazi rallies Nazi rallies became a central point for winning support, impressing with their scale and energy. As part of using modern technology, Hitler used aircraft to shuttle across Germany. For example, in April 1932, he visited 20 different rallies and addressed over a million people in this tour called – ‘The Führer Over Germany’.
Increasing political violence With the rise of extremism, there was an increase of fighting between Nazis and Communists, from smashing up meetings to pitch street battles. Although, this violence alienated some middle class voters, the Nazis won greater support as there were seen to bring order and discipline while the Communists were seen as a threat to industry and farmers with their ideas of state control.
Hitler runs for President – March and April 1932 To raise his profile further, Hitler challenged Hindenburg in the Presidential Elections in March/April 1932. Hitler never expected to win, but significant won a greater share of the vote than expected – 37% - in a noisy, energetic campaign.
Von Papen becomes Chancellor – May 1932 A close advisor to Hindenburg, von Papen was a relatively unknown replacing the sacked Brüning in May 1932. He continued to make cuts to welfare provision and called an election in July 1932 to secure greater support for his policies.
The July 1932 Election The July 1932 Election made the Nazis the largest party in the Reichstag with 230 seats – although without an overall majority. Hitler demanded the position of Chancellor – usually given to the leader of the largest party in the Reichstag. Hindenburg refused.
Why was another election called for November 1932? Von Papen had virtually no support within the Reichstag. He tried to get support from the Nazis by offering Hitler the position of Vice Chancellor. Hitler refused – he wanted complete power or nothing. With little support, a divided, squabbling Reichstag, von Papen called another election in November.
The November 1932 Election The November 1932 Election saw the Nazis lose 2 million votes and 34 seats. Apathy was setting in and Hitler was worried about dwindling party funds. This was despite the Nazis still remaining the largest party in the Reichstag. Von Papen was dismissed as Chancellor and replaced by von Schleicher – not Hitler.
Von Schleicher as Chancellor - November 1932 to January 1933 Von Schleicher felt he could dilute rising Nazi control in the Reichstag by dividing them. His attempt to do this was bypassing Hitler and offering a rival Nazi, Gregor Strasser, the position of Vice Chancellor. Hitler forced and intimidated Strasser to refuse the position.
Von Papen’s deal with Hitler – January 1933 Von Papen, wanting to regain power, decided to form a deal with Hitler. Von Papen agreed to persuade Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor who offer popular support and strong government. In return, von Papen would be appointed Vice Chancellor and that there would be only two Nazis in the Reichstag Cabinet Von Papen agreed to this because he felt if he flooded the Cabinet with conservatives – they would limit Nazi influence and that Hitler could be controlled and tamed.
Hitler appointed Chancellor – 30 th January 1933 Hindenburg agreed to this plan and Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 th January 1933. Days later, a former army comrade wrote to Hindenburg – ‘This accursed Hitler will cast our country into the abyss. Future generations will damn you in your grave for what you have done’.
Revisiting the Starter Which words did you pick? Why were they significant in the lesson?
Main task Complete the activities on the worksheet. Remember to give yourself plenty of space in your books and draw the chart in pencil. Gather as much evidence as you can which will help you explain your decisions. Extension question Which event was the most significant in helping Hitler become Chancellor? Explain your answer.
Subheading – My Brain Draw an outline of your brain. Fill your drawn brain with all the things you have learnt in this lesson. This can be in the form of key words, drawings, bullet points, lists – anything you like so long as it summarises your learning and that others can understand it. Plenary – My Brain