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The Rise of Fascism in Europe
fascism a political philosophy based on nationalism and an all-powerful state
Benito Mussolini is credited as the founder of fascism in the 1920s. [Image source:
The word fasce comes from one of the symbols of authority of the Republic of Rome.
Mussolini imagined he could return Italy to the glory of the Roman empire days. [Image source:
Mussolini began by reasserting Italy’s control over Libya in North Africa. [Image source:
Italy next invaded Ethiopia in October [Image source: s/cur/Baker_00/03/baker-mc- 03/aby-map.jpg]
Emperor Haile Selassie addressed the League of Nations, but his appeal for aid fell on deaf ears.
Spain emerged as a central-front in the war to contain fascism.
Germany tested many of its new weapons in the Spanish Civil War. [Image source:
26 th April 1937 [Image source:
General Franco emerged as the victor in the Spanish Civil War ( ). [Image source:
Adolf Hitler first attempted to seize power in Bavaria, Germany through the abortive Munich Beer-hall Putsch of November 1923.
While in prison, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf to his associate Rudolf Hess.
Mein Kampf, published in 1925, was Adolf Hitler’s blueprint for what he planned to do once he became the leader of Germany.
Hitler came to power in Germany in [Image source:
President Paul von Hindenburg asked Hitler to become chancellor and organize a government.
Hitler became Chancellor 20 th January 1933.
Hitler quickly consolidated his power at the expense of both his allies and patrons, ultimately becoming der Fűhrer 19 th August 1934.
The burning of the Reischstag 27 th February 1933 allowed Hitler to seize power on the pretext of protecting Germany from threats to its security.
The Enabling Act of 23 rd March 1933 granted Hitler dictatorial powers.
The Nazi SA (Sturmabteilung) opened their first concentration camp near Berlin 12 th March 1933.
Boycotts of Jewish businesses commenced 1 st April 1933.
“The Grim Reaper” The Nation (April 1933) [Image source:
The Nazi’s burned books 10 th May 1933.
In an act of violent retribution known as the “Night of the Long Knives”, Hitler eliminated long-term, close associates of his, whom he feared, on 30 th June 1934.
The Nüremburg Race Laws stripped German Jews of their rights in [Image source:
Chart explaining the Nüremburg Race Laws of 15 th September 1935 [Image source:
Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by re-introducing military conscription.
Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland 7 th March 1936.
Hitler hoped the 1936 Olympics in Berlin would showcase Aryan superiority.
American track stand-out Jesse Owens shattered Hitler’s claims of Aryan racial superiority.
Hossbach Memorandum Hossbach Memorandum 5 th November 1937
Hitler advocated uniting all Germans under one government.
In March 1938 Hitler announced the Anschlűss (union) of Germany and Austria.
Hitler next set his eyes on the German minority living in the Sudetenland of neighboring Czechoslovakia.
Well-intentioned European leaders, meeting in Munich, appeased Hitler and ceded-away part of sovereign-Czechoslovakian territory in the hope of preventing a European war.
Hitler marched into the Sudetenland 15 th October [Image source:
“We have peace in our time!” Great Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
Hitler ended-up occupying the rest of Czechoslovakia in March [Image source:
Kristallnacht 9 th /10 th November 1938
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression pact 23 rd August 1939.
[Image source: Many people today erroneously see a similarity between fascism’s drive to dominate the world and America’s desire to make the world safe from terrorism.
They perceive a threat to our individual liberties as emanating only from one of the two major political parties. [Image source:
Signs of fascism include “group- think”, where only certain ideas and perspectives are considered acceptable, and increasing government intrusion into daily life (regulation).
Disapproval of fascism is district curriculum and policy.
Beware the “cult of personality”.
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