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The Rise of Hitler.

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1 The Rise of Hitler

2 Warmup “The Jews of Germany were not German patriots during the war, and although this will not appear a crime in the eyes of the nations who were opposed to Germany, it may throw some light on the Jew's assertion of patriotic loyalty to the land where he lives. Thoughtful Germans hold that it is impossible for a Jew to be a patriot…” Who said this?

3 Henry Ford “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem”
“I regard Henry Ford as my inspiration.” Hitler 1931 July 1938 – awarded ‘Grand Cross of the German Eagle’

4 Brief Biography Born April 20th, 1889 to Alois Schicklgruber and
Klara Pölzl in Austria Alois took name Hiedler of his uncle Spelled it Hitler Klara was his niece 24 year age difference

5 Brief Biography Father was violent and abusive
Hitler was a menacing child Played pranks Lead others in disorderly conduct Fought with father over his future Hitler wanted to be an Artist Father died at 13 Hitler free to do as he pleased

6 Brief Biography Failed painter Deemed unfit to serve in Austrian army
Dropped out of High School at age 16 Moved to Vienna - Heavily Anti-Semitic city Developed intense hatred for Jews Failed painter Homeless at times Deemed unfit to serve in Austrian army Inherited money in 1913 Moved to Munich

7 World War I breaks out Petitioned King of Bavaria to enter war
Wounded during Battle of Somme Temporarily blinded by Mustard Gas in 1918 Received two Iron Cross awards for bravery Hardens ardent German nationalism Did not understand Germany’s surrender Versailles War Guilt Clause

8 Dolchstoß – Dagger Stab
Popular social theory many Germans believed led to WWI loss Military didn’t lose on battlefield Stabbed in the back at home Unpatriotic citizens War profiteers Jews Marxists Civilian politicians November Criminals

9 The caption says: “With an insufficient military, Germany can be blockaded both by land and sea.” Germany had suffered considerably during World War I under the Allied blockade, something the map suggests could happen again. With an insufficient military, Germany could be blocked both by land and sea.

10 GERMANY INTRODUCES WEIMAR REPUBLIC
KAISER WILLIAM II ABDICATES UNDER THREAT OF REVOLUTION. - NEW LEADERS SIGN ARMISTICE AND LATER TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919, NEW GERMAN GOVERNMENT DRAFTS CONSTITUTION IN WEIMAR CREATED DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT KNOWN AS THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT LED BY CHANCELLOR & REICHSTAG BILL OF RIGHTS

11 Post WWI Hitler still enlisted in army Hitler discharged in 1920
Attends meeting of DAP (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) German Workers Party Hitler discharged in 1920 Joins DAP Begins speaking out about November Criminals in public speeches

12 1922 – The German Government stopped paying Reparations
Economic Problems 1922 – The German Government stopped paying Reparations – Hyperinflation Prices rose everyday and every hour People began to exchange goods (barter) In 1922 the Government stopped paying Reparations and the French and Belgian Armies invaded the Ruhr, the main industrial area of Germany. When the German workers went on strike they brought in their own workers and cut the area off from the rest of Germany. In 1922 and 1923 Germany was hit by Hyperinflation. This is the name given to the massive rise in prices that took place and affected everyone in Germany. Many Germans found that their life-savings were lost. People who lived on pensions were ruined. Prices rose every day and every hour and people rushed to buy goods as soon as they were paid. They bought anything, because otherwise their money would lose value immediately. People began to exchange goods (barter) rather than use money and shopkeepers tried to keep their shops closed and avoid selling anything.

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14 UNREST IN GERMANY GERMANS OF ALL CLASSES BLAMED THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE HATED VERSAILLES TREATY. MANY ACCUSED MARXISTS AND JEWS FOR AN IMAGINARY CONSPIRACY TO BETRAY GERMANY. OUT OF CONTROL INFLATION RIDICULOUS REPARATIONS PAYMENTS RECOVERY IS HELPED BY AMERICAN DAWES PLAN STOPPED BY GREAT DEPRESSION GERMANY LOOKS TO ENERGETIC LEADER NAMED ADOLF HITLER TO SAVE THEM

15 SUPPORT GROWS FOR NEW HITLER
FEB ,000 PEOPLE LISTEN TO HITLER LAY OUT HIS IDEAS OF NEW GERMANY INCLUDING EXPELING JEWS HITLER READS “THE PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION” ANTI SEMITIC BOOK FULL OF LIES ALLOWS HITLER TO BLAME JEWS FOR EVERYTHING

16 Nazi Party Popularity grows by 1921
Becomes sole leader of DAP Renames it Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) National Socialist German Workers Party Shortens nickname to NAZI Adopts Swastika as official party Emblem

17 Swastika Dates back 3,000 years Sanskrit word meaning ‘to be good’
Often meant life, luck, strength, etc Southwest Cave Drawing Army 45th Infantry Division Patch

18 Sturmabteilung (SA) Storm Battalion (1921) (Storm Troopers)
aka Brown Shirts Created to: Protect Nazi Meetings Break up other groups meetings Terrorize Nazi opponents Headed by Ernst Röhm

19 Beer Hall Putsch (1923) Hitler elects to overthrow government
Meeting in Bürgerbräukeller (Munich) Declares new government for Germany At daybreak, Marches with SA on War Ministry to overthrow government Fighting ensues 16 Nazi’s killed Blutfahne – ‘Blood Flag’

20 Landsberg Prison Served 8 months Writes Mein Kampf
Solidifies Anti-Semitic thought Decides only way to gain power is by democratic means

21 Mein Kampf Wanted to title it Four and a Half Years (of Fighting) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice Part autobiography / part ideology “The personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”

22 MEIN KAMPF “MY STRUGGLE”
MAIN THEME WAS SOCIAL DARWINISM FELT GERMAN PEOPLE WERE RACIALLY SUPERIOR MASTER RACE OR ARYANS VIEWED JEWS AS A SEPARATE RACE

23 After Release Hitler begins rebuilding the party
More fervent nationalism/anti-semitism Blames Jews for WWI loss and Versailles Treaty 1925 – Schutzstaffel (SS) created as Hitler’s bodyguard 1928 – 9th largest party in Germany 15 seats in Reichstag Mainly butt of jokes

24 Great Depression Increases rhetoric / popularity Hitler vows to:
Make Germany strong Not pay reparations Repudiate Versailles treaty Stamp out corruption Give every German bread and a job 1930 – Second largest party in Germany 107 seats in Reichstag >

25 Campaign Speech

26 Road to Chancellorship
Feb Becomes a German citizen Runs for President against Hindenburg April 10th, 1932 Loses 53% to 37% July 31st, 1932 230 seats in Reichstag Largest party in Germany

27 Chancellor January 30th, 1933 Suspends freedoms throughout Germany
Appointed Chancellor Suspends freedoms throughout Germany SA silences enemies

28 Reichstag Fire February 27th, 1933 Next day Hindenburg
Blames communists Main opponent Next day Hindenburg Limits liberty, expression, press, assembly, association Permits wire tapping Eliminates search warrants Restricts property ownership Allowed federal government to take over states

29 Solidifying Power March 5, 1933 March 23, 1933 July 14, 1933
288 seats in Reichstag March 23, 1933 Reichstag passes bill giving all duties to Chancellor Hitler July 14, 1933 Law decrees NSDAP the only political party in Germany >

30 The Victory Speech

31 Der Führer June 34 – Night of the Long Knives August 1934
Hindenburg dies Hitler merges Chancellor and President Becomes the leader Der Führer Army takes oath directly to Hitler

32 The Rise of Hitler

33 Summation Silencing Enemies Propaganda Big Business Money
Anti – Semitism Depression German Nationalism Silencing Enemies Big Business Money Support of the common man

34 HITLER PREPARES TO DOMINATE THE WORLD
CONSOLIDATES POWER AND TAKES POSITION AS DICTATOR. ELIMINATES ALL CHALLENGERS BUILDS UP INDUSTRY IN PREPARATION FOR WAR BY 1935 HITLER IS READY TO IMPLEMENT HIS MASTER PLAN OUTLINES PLANS FOR WORLD DOMINATION

35 "Sucked Dry" FEB 1930 Caption: “Sucked dry.”
Explanation: The caricature suggests that the Jews are sucking the economic life from Gentiles. It is one of numerous Sturmer cartoons comparing Jews to inhuman and unpleasant creatures. (February 1930) "Sucked Dry"

36 "The Worm" NOV 1931 Title “The Worm”
Caption: “where something is rotten, the Jew is the cause.” Explanation: The names in the background are those of Jews involved in major financial scandals. The able is named “the German economy.” The worm is named “Jewish scandals.” (November 1931) "The Worm"

37 HITLER BLAMES THE JEWS FOR THE TROUBLES THAT ARE IN GERMANY
ANTI-SEMETIC POLICIES WIN WIDESPREAD SUPPORT Jews lose rights slowly but, surely Hitler creates a nationalist fervor by excluding the Jews

38 Prelude to War 1935- Nuremburg Laws in Germany denied citizenship and many other rights to German Jews Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)- November 9,1938- a pogrom against the Jews of Germany and Austria Windows were smashed in Jewish shops, and synagogues were burned to the ground Jews were excluded from all but the most menial forms of employment

39 Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass

40 Kristallnacht

41 Kristallnacht

42 rights and freedoms RANK THE FOLLOWING IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE
Own or use a public phone Date/marry whomever you choose Own a radio, Nintendo, CD player Own a pet Go to the movies Leave your house when ever you choose

43 TERROR BEGINS AT HOME 1934 –JEWISH NEWSPAPERS BANNED
CITIZENSHIP FOR JEWS REVOKED MARRIAGES BETWEEN JEWS AND ARYANS FORBIDDEN 1936- JEWS LOSE RIGHT TO VOTE 1937-JEWS TRVEL RESTRICTED 1938 JEWS LOSE SEVERAL MORE RIGHTS 1939 TURN RADIOS OVER TO THE POLICE

44 TERROR CONTINUES 1940 LOSE PHONES IN HOMES ARE BEGIN TO GET TAKEN INTO PROTECTIVE CUSTODY 1941 CAN’T LEAVE HOUSE WITHOUT PERMISSION, NO PUBLIC PHONES 1942- NO NEWSPAPERS, DOGS, CATS, BIRDS, BIKE. CANT PURCHASE MEAT,EGGS, MILK

45 HITLER'S PLAN FOR UNIFICATION
HITLER WANTS TO BRING ALL P EOPLE OF GERMAN DECENT TOGETHER GAIN LIVING SPACE FOR PEOPLE Lebensraum CONQUER INFERIOR PEOPLE FIRST ON HITLER’S LIST IS AUSTRIA GETS AUSTRIAN NAZI’S INTO KEY POSITIONS

46 AUSTRIA IS FIRST TO GO 1938 HITLER ANNEXES AUSTRIA
Many Austrians want merger ANSCHLUSS AUSTRIAN GIVEN JOBS AND FOOD WESTERN DEMOCRACIES DO LITTLE SELF-DETERMINATION APPEASMENT GIVES HITLER INVINCIBLE FEELING

47 March 12 & 13, 1938 "Anschluss" Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of Germany, accepts salutes and cheers from the nazi controlle dReichstag after announcing the Anschluss (union) with Austriay. Immediately after the Anschluss, nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them.

48 Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement. Repercussions of the Anschluss: Hitler takes Austria? What other country in Europe had its eye on Austrian land? What do you think is going to happen? Why? Why does Europe let Hitler take Austria? Could they have stopped him? Could they have stopped a World War?

49 Britain in 1938: The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT 2 Army Divisions
A Navy – which planned to blockade in the event of war Tactical Bombing – only 1 Wing Prepared There was still a great deal of Anti-War Sentiment Oxford Peace Ballot H.G. Wells’ move predicted the second World War – believed that gas would be irresistable 1936 – British were distributing Gas masks The people believed London would be reduced to rubble – Predictions were as bad as what we predict today from a nuclear War 1938 – Chamberlain was Prime Minister - Was beginning to rebuild its armed forces – Labour party opposed - Britain just recovering from a recession / worried more spending would bring Britain back into the recession - Germany, Italy and Japan had cast their eys on the British colonies. Can Britain defend this enormous empire agasint all of them?? Chamberlain made 2 predictions. 1. If there is a war Britain will lose its colonies 2. ½ of Europe would go Communist Both of these predictions came true!!!!

50 France in 1938: Maginot Line Large Army Anti-War Sentiment
The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT France in 1938: Maginot Line Large Army Anti-War Sentiment The Maginot Line was a trench that runs along the German/French Border and stops at Belgium. France was hoping and relying the idea that Belgium would also fortify. However, when the Rhineland was rearmed by Germany – Belgium declared neutrality and left the area open. - The Maginot Line – could not help – It was a defensive measure and not offensive. - Militaries were not very useful

51 The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT The United States in 1938
Roosevelt “We must Quarantine Aggressors” 85% of US didn’t want war Neutrality Act Clear Message to Chamberlain – You are on your own. There was a huge outcry to what Roosevelt said.

52 The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT Soviet Union in 1938: Great Purges
Victims were the officer corps of the Army Chamberlain didn’t trust Stalin

53 The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT Czechoslovakia
One of few surviving democracies in Eastern Europe Sudetenland Majority of Germans – Nazis in area September 4, 1938 – Benes (President of Czech) Granted Autonomy to Sudeten Germans

54 The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT
September 7, 1938 The Times of London, said that Czechoslovakia should give up the Sudetenland September 15, 1938 – Hitler insisted on National Self-determination The entire Czech defense is in the Sudetenland

55 The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT
September 22, 1938 – Chamberlain agreed to a phased plan to transfer the Sudetenland Hitler wants immediate occupation – Britain hands out gas masks – Chamberlain announces that they are on the brink of war. Mussolini Called a Peace Conference in Munich

56 Czechs weren’t invited / Russia wasn’t invited
The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT Czechs weren’t invited / Russia wasn’t invited Hitler got the original offer – Occupation over 10 Days Poland and Hungary would also receive slices of Czechoslovakia When Chamberlain stepped of the plan at Munich he was greeted by cheering German crowds. German public did not want a war. Elements in high command in Germany who didn’t want Hitler – tried to give messages to Chamberlain to stand firm – if Hitler is humiliated we can get rid of him in a coup de tat. People of German wanted the Sudetenland, but not war – Chamberlain decided to give them both. Chamberlain didn’t want Russians involved, Hitler announced a tirade against Czechoslovakia – in the end Hitler got what he was originally offered. Hitler encouraged Slovaks to assert their independence (if they didn’t Germans said they’d give more land to Hungary) Slovakia breaks from Czechoslovakia Benes resigned Hacha – New President of Czech (old and sick) goes to talk to Hitler to see what he could do – Hitler threw a tantrum Hacha – signs over the entire country to Hitler but he holds on with one loophole

57 German army told to go into Czechoslovakia – if they resist there will be war (British & French have said they would), Hitler must convince Hacha to unopposed. At deadline Hacha signs over the country. Czech gets absorbed into Germany Slovakia – becomes a German satellite British Government – did nothing the loan promised to Czechoslovakia was given to Germany – said he could do nothing – because the Czechoslovakian gov’t no longer existed. All Czech military arms were absorbed into Germany All the countries of Eastern Europe became militarily dependent on germnay because all their arms had been purchased from Czechoslovakia The rest of Eastern Europe fell to German control Chamberlain – told press not to report anything about nazi Germany

58 POLAND HOT SPOT After WWI – Independent
Governing class had an overwhelming self-confidence Polish Myth 50% of $ is spent of Military (1/6 of what Germany spends) Poland after World War I – for the first time in 120 years was an independent nation – the Governing class had an overwhelming self confidence The Polish Myth – if Poland takes up resistance may be some way they will win Now Hitler is going to have to deal with a country that will stand up to him Poland – 50% of $ spent of the military that was only 1/6 of what Germany was spending Josef Beck – it was a total bluff – military was not powerful in terms of its technology Obsolete Navy/Airforce Cavalry – performed well in against Red Army was now obsolete. Hitler at first took a very conciliatory poisition with Beck – Maybe he could win them over to his side

59 2. Polish Corridor – Transit Rights
HITLER WANTED THREE THINGS 1. City of Danzig 2. Polish Corridor – Transit Rights 3. Poland to Join the Anti-Communism Act

60 City of Danzig – Port city under League of Nations – Poland could use to have access to the sea. Ethnically a German city. Since WWI Poland had built a port in a city inside the Polish border – Danzig was economically devastated. Polish Corridor – Divided Germany in 2 – East Prussia and the rest of Germany Hitler wanted Transit Rights across the corridor Poland would have to join the anti-communism Act – Against Soviet Russia. Make Poland an ally against the Bolsheviks

61 Poland refused all 3 – even though they really were not that unreasonable – it was only then did Hitler get tough.

62 April 3, 1939 – Hitler gives Poland a September 1 deadline – He was playing military Chicken – Hoping the Poles would give way. March 31 – Chamberlain and France had given a guarantee to Poland – unconditional. France and Britain would go to war for Poland regardless of the other April 1939 – Britain introduced a Peace – time draft but at the same time sent confusing signals to Hitler Suggested an Anglo-German nonagression act Money for Czech went to Hitelr Sphere of Nazi influence in Balkans Hitler sees it as Chamberlain will always give concessions. May 22, 1939 – Pact of Steel between Mussolini and Hitler Relations with Russia – Russia wanted Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia – French and British could not give Stalin these – Hitler could – Stalin breaks negotiations with the west!! Hitler in August of 1939 – tries to meet with Stalin, but Soviets don’t respond they were playing it cool August 23 – Nazi-Soviet Pact – Publicly it was a non agression pact – each one will remain neutral if the other gets involved in a war. Privately it carved up Eastern Europe August 25 – Mussolini backs out of the Pact of Steel – saying they are not militarily ready September 1, 1939 – WAR BEGINS!!! A Polish attack on German Radio Station was staged by Germans. **** Oscar Schindler – a spy for Germans aquired the Polish uniforms for the staging. France – Mobilized There was no strong spiritual Naitonlism Everyone in Britain was on edge Everyone was afraid September 1, 1939


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