2Warmup“The Jews of Germany were not German patriots during the war, and although this will not appear a crime in the eyes of the nations who were opposed to Germany, it may throw some light on the Jew's assertion of patriotic loyalty to the land where he lives. Thoughtful Germans hold that it is impossible for a Jew to be a patriot…”Who said this?
3Henry Ford “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” “I regard Henry Fordas my inspiration.”Hitler 1931July 1938 – awarded‘Grand Cross of theGerman Eagle’
4Brief Biography Born April 20th, 1889 to Alois Schicklgruber and Klara Pölzl in AustriaAlois took name Hiedlerof his uncleSpelled it HitlerKlara was his niece24 year age difference
5Brief Biography Father was violent and abusive Hitler was a menacing childPlayed pranksLead others in disorderlyconductFought with fatherover his futureHitler wanted to be an ArtistFather died at 13Hitler free to do as he pleased
6Brief Biography Failed painter Deemed unfit to serve in Austrian army Dropped out of High School at age 16Moved to Vienna - Heavily Anti-Semitic cityDeveloped intense hatred for JewsFailed painterHomeless at timesDeemed unfit to servein Austrian armyInherited money in 1913Moved to Munich
7World War I breaks out Petitioned King of Bavaria to enter war Wounded during Battle of SommeTemporarily blinded by Mustard Gas in 1918Received two Iron Cross awards for braveryHardens ardentGerman nationalismDid not understandGermany’s surrenderVersaillesWar Guilt Clause
8Dolchstoß – Dagger Stab Popular social theory many Germans believed led to WWI lossMilitary didn’t lose on battlefieldStabbed in the back at homeUnpatriotic citizensWar profiteersJewsMarxistsCivilian politiciansNovember Criminals
9The caption says: “With an insufficient military, Germany can be blockaded both by land and sea.” Germany had suffered considerably during World War I under the Allied blockade, something the map suggests could happen again.With an insufficient military, Germany could be blocked both by land and sea.
10GERMANY INTRODUCES WEIMAR REPUBLIC KAISER WILLIAM II ABDICATES UNDER THREAT OF REVOLUTION.- NEW LEADERS SIGN ARMISTICE AND LATER TREATY OF VERSAILLES1919, NEW GERMAN GOVERNMENT DRAFTS CONSTITUTION IN WEIMARCREATED DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT KNOWN AS THE WEIMAR REPUBLICGOVERNMENT LED BY CHANCELLOR & REICHSTAGBILL OF RIGHTS
11Post WWI Hitler still enlisted in army Hitler discharged in 1920 Attends meeting of DAP (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)German Workers PartyHitler discharged in 1920Joins DAPBegins speaking outabout NovemberCriminals in publicspeeches
121922 – The German Government stopped paying Reparations Economic Problems1922 – The German Government stopped paying Reparations– HyperinflationPrices rose everyday and every hourPeople began to exchange goods (barter)In 1922 the Government stopped paying Reparations and the French and Belgian Armies invaded the Ruhr, the main industrial area of Germany. When the German workers went on strike they brought in their own workers and cut the area off from the rest of Germany.In 1922 and 1923 Germany was hit by Hyperinflation. This is the name given to the massive rise in prices that took place and affected everyone in Germany.Many Germans found that their life-savings were lost. People who lived on pensions were ruined.Prices rose every day and every hour and people rushed to buy goods as soon as they were paid. They bought anything, because otherwise their money would lose value immediately. People began to exchange goods (barter) rather than use money and shopkeepers tried to keep their shops closed and avoid selling anything.
14UNREST IN GERMANYGERMANS OF ALL CLASSES BLAMED THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE HATED VERSAILLES TREATY.MANY ACCUSED MARXISTS AND JEWS FOR AN IMAGINARY CONSPIRACY TO BETRAY GERMANY.OUT OF CONTROL INFLATIONRIDICULOUS REPARATIONS PAYMENTSRECOVERY IS HELPED BY AMERICAN DAWES PLANSTOPPED BY GREAT DEPRESSIONGERMANY LOOKS TO ENERGETIC LEADER NAMED ADOLF HITLER TO SAVE THEM
15SUPPORT GROWS FOR NEW HITLER FEB ,000 PEOPLE LISTEN TO HITLER LAY OUT HIS IDEAS OF NEW GERMANYINCLUDING EXPELING JEWSHITLER READS “THE PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION”ANTI SEMITIC BOOK FULL OF LIESALLOWS HITLER TO BLAME JEWS FOR EVERYTHING
16Nazi Party Popularity grows by 1921 Becomes sole leader of DAPRenames it Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)National Socialist German Workers PartyShortens nickname to NAZIAdopts Swastika asofficial party Emblem
17Swastika Dates back 3,000 years Sanskrit word meaning ‘to be good’ Often meant life, luck, strength, etcSouthwest Cave DrawingArmy 45th Infantry Division Patch
18Sturmabteilung (SA) Storm Battalion (1921) (Storm Troopers) aka Brown ShirtsCreated to:Protect Nazi MeetingsBreak up other groups meetingsTerrorize Nazi opponentsHeaded by Ernst Röhm
19Beer Hall Putsch (1923) Hitler elects to overthrow government Meeting in Bürgerbräukeller (Munich)Declares new government for GermanyAt daybreak, Marcheswith SA on WarMinistry to overthrowgovernmentFighting ensues16 Nazi’s killedBlutfahne – ‘Blood Flag’
20Landsberg Prison Served 8 months Writes Mein Kampf Solidifies Anti-Semitic thoughtDecides only way to gain power is by democratic means
21Mein KampfWanted to title it Four and a Half Years (of Fighting) Against Lies, Stupidity and CowardicePart autobiography /part ideology“The personification of thedevil as the symbol of all evilassumes the living shape ofthe Jew.”
22MEIN KAMPF “MY STRUGGLE” MAIN THEME WAS SOCIAL DARWINISMFELT GERMAN PEOPLE WERE RACIALLY SUPERIORMASTER RACE OR ARYANSVIEWED JEWS AS A SEPARATE RACE
23After Release Hitler begins rebuilding the party More fervent nationalism/anti-semitismBlames Jews for WWI loss and Versailles Treaty1925 – Schutzstaffel (SS) created as Hitler’s bodyguard1928 – 9th largestparty in Germany15 seats in ReichstagMainly butt of jokes
24Great Depression Increases rhetoric / popularity Hitler vows to: Make Germany strongNot pay reparationsRepudiate Versailles treatyStamp out corruptionGive every German breadand a job1930 – Second largest party in Germany107 seats in Reichstag>
26Road to Chancellorship Feb Becomes a German citizenRuns for President against HindenburgApril 10th, 1932Loses 53% to 37%July 31st, 1932230 seats in ReichstagLargest party in Germany
27Chancellor January 30th, 1933 Suspends freedoms throughout Germany Appointed ChancellorSuspends freedoms throughout GermanySA silences enemies
28Reichstag Fire February 27th, 1933 Next day Hindenburg Blames communistsMain opponentNext day HindenburgLimits liberty, expression, press, assembly, associationPermits wire tappingEliminates search warrantsRestricts property ownershipAllowed federal government to take over states
29Solidifying Power March 5, 1933 March 23, 1933 July 14, 1933 288 seats in ReichstagMarch 23, 1933Reichstag passes bill giving all duties to Chancellor HitlerJuly 14, 1933Law decrees NSDAP the only political party in Germany>
33Summation Silencing Enemies Propaganda Big Business Money Anti – SemitismDepressionGerman NationalismSilencing EnemiesBig Business MoneySupport of the common man
34HITLER PREPARES TO DOMINATE THE WORLD CONSOLIDATES POWER AND TAKES POSITION AS DICTATOR.ELIMINATES ALL CHALLENGERSBUILDS UP INDUSTRY IN PREPARATION FOR WARBY 1935 HITLER IS READY TO IMPLEMENT HIS MASTER PLANOUTLINES PLANS FOR WORLD DOMINATION
35"Sucked Dry" FEB 1930 Caption: “Sucked dry.” Explanation: The caricature suggests that the Jews are sucking the economic life from Gentiles. It is one of numerous Sturmer cartoons comparing Jews to inhuman and unpleasant creatures. (February 1930)"Sucked Dry"
36"The Worm" NOV 1931 Title “The Worm” Caption: “where something is rotten, the Jew is the cause.”Explanation: The names in the background are those of Jews involved in major financial scandals. The able is named “the German economy.” The worm is named “Jewish scandals.” (November 1931)"The Worm"
37HITLER BLAMES THE JEWS FOR THE TROUBLES THAT ARE IN GERMANY ANTI-SEMETIC POLICIES WIN WIDESPREAD SUPPORTJews lose rights slowly but, surelyHitler creates a nationalist fervor by excluding the Jews
38Prelude to War1935- Nuremburg Laws in Germany denied citizenship and many other rights to German JewsKristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)- November 9,1938- a pogrom against the Jews of Germany and AustriaWindows were smashed in Jewish shops, and synagogues were burned to the groundJews were excluded from all but the most menial forms of employment
42rights and freedoms RANK THE FOLLOWING IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE Own or use a public phoneDate/marry whomever you chooseOwn a radio, Nintendo, CD playerOwn a petGo to the moviesLeave your house when ever you choose
43TERROR BEGINS AT HOME 1934 –JEWISH NEWSPAPERS BANNED CITIZENSHIP FOR JEWS REVOKEDMARRIAGES BETWEEN JEWS AND ARYANS FORBIDDEN1936- JEWS LOSE RIGHT TO VOTE1937-JEWS TRVEL RESTRICTED1938 JEWS LOSE SEVERAL MORE RIGHTS1939 TURN RADIOS OVER TO THE POLICE
44TERROR CONTINUES1940 LOSE PHONES IN HOMES ARE BEGIN TO GET TAKEN INTO PROTECTIVE CUSTODY1941 CAN’T LEAVE HOUSE WITHOUT PERMISSION, NO PUBLIC PHONES1942- NO NEWSPAPERS, DOGS, CATS, BIRDS, BIKE.CANT PURCHASE MEAT,EGGS, MILK
45HITLER'S PLAN FOR UNIFICATION HITLER WANTS TO BRING ALL PEOPLE OF GERMAN DECENT TOGETHERGAIN LIVING SPACE FOR PEOPLELebensraumCONQUER INFERIOR PEOPLEFIRST ON HITLER’S LIST IS AUSTRIAGETS AUSTRIAN NAZI’S INTO KEY POSITIONS
46AUSTRIA IS FIRST TO GO 1938 HITLER ANNEXES AUSTRIA Many Austrians want mergerANSCHLUSSAUSTRIAN GIVEN JOBSAND FOODWESTERN DEMOCRACIES DO LITTLESELF-DETERMINATIONAPPEASMENTGIVES HITLER INVINCIBLE FEELING
47March 12 & 13, 1938"Anschluss"Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of Germany, accepts salutes and cheers from the nazi controlle dReichstag after announcing the Anschluss (union) with Austriay. Immediately after the Anschluss, nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them.
48Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement.Repercussions of the Anschluss:Hitler takes Austria? What other country in Europe had its eye on Austrian land? What do you think is going to happen? Why?Why does Europe let Hitler take Austria? Could they have stopped him? Could they have stopped a World War?
49Britain in 1938: The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT 2 Army Divisions A Navy – which planned to blockade in the event of warTactical Bombing – only 1 Wing PreparedThere was still a great deal of Anti-War SentimentOxfordPeace BallotH.G. Wells’ move predicted the second World War – believed that gas would be irresistable1936 – British were distributing Gas masksThe people believed London would be reduced to rubble – Predictions were as bad as what we predict today from a nuclear War1938 – Chamberlain was Prime Minister- Was beginning to rebuild its armed forces – Labour party opposed- Britain just recovering from a recession / worried more spending would bring Britain back into the recession- Germany, Italy and Japan had cast their eys on the British colonies. Can Britain defend this enormous empire agasint all of them?? Chamberlain made 2 predictions.1. If there is a war Britain will lose its colonies2. ½ of Europe would go CommunistBoth of these predictions came true!!!!
50France in 1938: Maginot Line Large Army Anti-War Sentiment The Munich CrisisAPPEASEMENTFrance in 1938:Maginot LineLarge ArmyAnti-War SentimentThe Maginot Line was a trench that runs along the German/French Border and stops at Belgium. France was hoping and relying the idea that Belgium would also fortify. However, when the Rhineland was rearmed by Germany – Belgium declared neutrality and left the area open.- The Maginot Line – could not help – It was a defensive measure and not offensive.- Militaries were not very useful
51The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT The United States in 1938 Roosevelt “We must Quarantine Aggressors”85% of US didn’t want warNeutrality ActClear Message to Chamberlain – You are on your own.There was a huge outcry to what Roosevelt said.
52The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT Soviet Union in 1938: Great Purges Victims were the officer corps of the ArmyChamberlain didn’t trust Stalin
53The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT Czechoslovakia One of few surviving democracies in Eastern EuropeSudetenlandMajority of Germans – Nazis in areaSeptember 4, 1938 – Benes (President of Czech) Granted Autonomy to Sudeten Germans
54The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT September 7, 1938 The Times of London, said that Czechoslovakia should give up the SudetenlandSeptember 15, 1938 – Hitler insisted on National Self-determinationThe entire Czech defense is in the Sudetenland
55The Munich Crisis APPEASEMENT September 22, 1938 – Chamberlain agreed to a phased plan to transfer the SudetenlandHitler wants immediate occupation – Britain hands out gas masks – Chamberlain announces that they are on the brink of war.Mussolini Called a Peace Conference in Munich
56Czechs weren’t invited / Russia wasn’t invited The Munich CrisisAPPEASEMENTCzechs weren’t invited / Russia wasn’t invitedHitler got the original offer – Occupation over 10 DaysPoland and Hungary would also receive slices of CzechoslovakiaWhen Chamberlain stepped of the plan at Munich he was greeted by cheering German crowds. German public did not want a war.Elements in high command in Germany who didn’t want Hitler – tried to give messages to Chamberlain to stand firm – if Hitler is humiliated we can get rid of him in a coup de tat.People of German wanted the Sudetenland, but not war – Chamberlain decided to give them both.Chamberlain didn’t want Russians involved, Hitler announced a tirade against Czechoslovakia – in the end Hitler got what he was originally offered.Hitler encouraged Slovaks to assert their independence (if they didn’t Germans said they’d give more land to Hungary) Slovakia breaks from CzechoslovakiaBenes resignedHacha – New President of Czech (old and sick) goes to talk to Hitler to see what he could do – Hitler threw a tantrumHacha – signs over the entire country to Hitler but he holds on with one loophole
57German army told to go into Czechoslovakia – if they resist there will be war (British & French have said they would), Hitler must convince Hacha to unopposed. At deadline Hacha signs over the country.Czech gets absorbed into GermanySlovakia – becomes a German satelliteBritish Government – did nothing the loan promised to Czechoslovakia was given to Germany – said he could do nothing – because the Czechoslovakian gov’t no longer existed.All Czech military arms were absorbed into GermanyAll the countries of Eastern Europe became militarily dependent on germnay because all their arms had been purchased from CzechoslovakiaThe rest of Eastern Europe fell to German controlChamberlain – told press not to report anything about nazi Germany
58POLAND HOT SPOT After WWI – Independent Governing class had an overwhelming self-confidencePolish Myth50% of $ is spent of Military (1/6 of what Germany spends)Poland after World War I – for the first time in 120 years was an independent nation – the Governing class had an overwhelming self confidenceThe Polish Myth – if Poland takes up resistance may be some way they will winNow Hitler is going to have to deal with a country that will stand up to himPoland – 50% of $ spent of the military that was only 1/6 of what Germany was spendingJosef Beck – it was a total bluff – military was not powerful in terms of its technologyObsolete Navy/AirforceCavalry – performed well in against Red Army was now obsolete.Hitler at first took a very conciliatory poisition with Beck – Maybe he could win them over to his side
592. Polish Corridor – Transit Rights HITLER WANTEDTHREE THINGS1. City of Danzig2. Polish Corridor – Transit Rights3. Poland to Join the Anti-Communism Act
60City of Danzig – Port city under League of Nations – Poland could use to have access to the sea. Ethnically a German city. Since WWI Poland had built a port in a city inside the Polish border – Danzig was economically devastated.Polish Corridor – Divided Germany in 2 – East Prussia and the rest of Germany Hitler wanted Transit Rights across the corridorPoland would have to join the anti-communism Act – Against Soviet Russia. Make Poland an ally against the Bolsheviks
61Poland refused all 3 – even though they really were not that unreasonable – it was only then did Hitler get tough.
62April 3, 1939 – Hitler gives Poland a September 1 deadline – He was playing military Chicken – Hoping the Poles would give way.March 31 – Chamberlain and France had given a guarantee to Poland – unconditional. France and Britain would go to war for Poland regardless of the otherApril 1939 – Britain introduced a Peace – time draft but at the same time sent confusing signals to HitlerSuggested an Anglo-German nonagression actMoney for Czech went to HitelrSphere of Nazi influence in BalkansHitler sees it as Chamberlain will always give concessions.May 22, 1939 – Pact of Steel between Mussolini and HitlerRelations with Russia – Russia wanted Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia – French and British could not give Stalin these – Hitler could – Stalin breaks negotiations with the west!!Hitler in August of 1939 – tries to meet with Stalin, but Soviets don’t respond they were playing it coolAugust 23 – Nazi-Soviet Pact – Publicly it was a non agression pact – each one will remain neutral if the other gets involved in a war. Privately it carved up Eastern EuropeAugust 25 – Mussolini backs out of the Pact of Steel – saying they are not militarily readySeptember 1, 1939 – WAR BEGINS!!!A Polish attack on German Radio Station was staged by Germans.**** Oscar Schindler – a spy for Germans aquired the Polish uniforms for the staging.France – MobilizedThere was no strong spiritual NaitonlismEveryone in Britain was on edgeEveryone was afraidSeptember 1, 1939