Presentation on theme: "Please draw this in your INB on INPUT side. Rise of the Dictators Adolf Hitler (Nazi) Germany Joseph Stalin (Communist) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics."— Presentation transcript:
Rise of the Dictators Adolf Hitler (Nazi) Germany Joseph Stalin (Communist) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Benito Mussolini (Fascist) Italy *Note: the term “Fascist” later became associated with any ruthless dictator despite its Italian origins.
Question What is a “cult of personality”? A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Dictator National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) Fuhrer “Reichstag fire” gives Chancellor Hitler absolute power In 1933, all parties were outlawed except the Nazi party People’s civil rights were suspended indefinitely
Appeal of Hitler “Cult of Personality” Germany was in the midst of an economic depression with hyper-inflation Hitler was a WWI hero who talked about bringing glory back to the “Fatherland” He promised the rich industrialists that he would end any communist threat in Germany Constantly blamed Jews for Germany’s problems, not the German people Hitler was an excellent public speaker and charismatic
Party Platform Hitler drafted a platform of 25 points Revoke Versailles Treaty Revoke civil rights of Jews Confiscate any war profits Secularize the State Propaganda Indoctrinate the youth Nationalize everything in the state... Besides changing the party name, the red flag with the SWASTIKA was adopted as the party symbol
Strong Arm Tactics The “Brownshirts” or SA (Stormtroopers) SA was used to put down opposition parties Threatened and beat up Jews and anti-Nazi voters Wore brownshirts, pants and boots Numbered almost 400,000 by 1932
Dictator Ousted from Italian Socialist Party National Fascist Party (Fascist) Duce Prime Minister of Italy 1922- 1925 1925 Legally became dictator and dropped all pretense of democracy Tried to expand Italy's territories into Africa
Appeal of Mussolini “Cult of Personality” He had a charming personality. Found a way to blame someone (non- Italians) for Italy's economic problems. Promised to revoke of the Treaty of Versailles, which many people were against.
Party Platform Revoke treaty of Versailles Repeal of titles of nobility A foreign policy aimed at expanding Italy's will and power in opposition to all foreign imperialism The nationalization of all arms and explosives industries The "review" of all military contracts and the "sequestration of 85% of all war profits The seizure of all goods belonging to religious congregations and the abolition of episcopal revenues The obligation of the state to build "rigidly secular" schools for the raising of "the proletariat's moral and cultural condition." A large and progressive tax on capital that would amount to a one-time partial expropriation of all riches...
Question Which fascist leader tried to expand his country's territory by attacking Ethiopia? Benito Mussolini
Strong Arm Tactics The “Blackshirts” were Italy's elite storm troops Fascist paramilitary armed squads Military tool of Mussolini's political movement Given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies – the Socialists and anyone else who opposed them
Dictator Communism Socialist Premier of the Soviet Union Mid 1920's until death in 1953 Amongst the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917 Stalin was duped by Adolf Hitler when the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939 was broken by Germany's surprise attack
Appeal of Stalin “Cult of Personality” Portrayed Lenin as the father of the nation and Stalin as the faithful one who brought Lenin's dreams closer to fruition
Party Platform Claimed his policies were based on Marxism-Leninism Collectivization of food and other resources Secularization of the state State run media Reinforced by a cult of personality - fought real and alleged opponents mainly through the security apparatus such as the NKVD Industrialization Propaganda Nationalization of the state
Strong Arm Tactics People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) Predecessor of the KGB Conducted mass extrajudicial executions Ran the Gulags (forced labor camps) Ethnic mass deportations Tasked with protection of borders and espionage Political repression through kidnappings, assassinations, and murders Enforcing Stalinist policy within communist movements in other countries Protection of state security
Question How did the idea of a "Cult of Personality" lead to the successes of Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler during this time period? List and describe other examples of world leaders you can think of who use “cult of personality”: