Presentation on theme: "International relations"— Presentation transcript:
1International relations 1919-1933 What happens to Germany and the Versailles-treaty?
2International situation 1919 Same great powers as 1914 except _____USA is strongest economically but decides to leave Europe to it self (isolationism)Britain and France weak economically but still world powersRussia weak and isolated but has potential. New government: Soviet socialist republicGermany weak and isolated but revanchist and has potential. New government: Weimar republicThe eastern buffer zone: a power vacuum.
3Prospects for the future In 1919 we have a flawed peace settlement,No agreed means of its enforcementsA weak international systemAnd then in 1930 we get the economic crisis
8Key dates 1919-1933 1919 Paris Peace settlement 1921 Reparations fixed at 132 billion gold marks1922 Treaty of Rapallo between Germany and USSR1923 French occupation of the Ruhr1924 Dawes Plan1925 Locarno Treaty1926 Germany enters the League of Nations1929 Young plan, Wall Street Crash1932 Reparations virtually abolished:1933 Hitler comes to power.
9USA European policyUSA did not become a member of the League of nations.The Versailles treaty was not ratified and US withdrew its promise to help France in case of German attack.In spite of isolationism USA participated in the Dawes plan (1924) and the Young plan (1929) so they could get some of their war loans back.Did the US jump from its responsibilities?
11British policy towards Germany Attempt to reconcile France and Germany in Genoa 1922 fail.Britain disapproves of the Ruhr occupation 1923Britains policy victorious in the Locarno-Treaty, Belgium, France, Germany agree to respect their joint frontiers.
12French policy towards Germany Tough stand to Occupation of RuhrFrance did not get backing from Britain so they revert to policy of friendship:Dawes, Locarno, Young.Tough again after 1931reject the German-Austrian customs union
13USSR foreign policy Isolation 1919-22 Rapollo treaty with Germany Western countries participated in Civil warRussia not invited to VersaillesBolsheviks instigated world revolutionRapollo treaty with GermanyDiplomatic relations and Germans allowed to build and test weapons in Russia.Cool relations with France and Britain.
15What is the German Policy to 33 Germans had a hard time accepting a treaty that treated Germans as a defeated nationStresemann's primary goals were 1) the protection of Germans abroad; 2) the readjustment of the eastern frontiers and 3) a union with German Austria.
17International relations 1933-39 Economic depression hits Europe hard 1930Huge reduction in trade – customs barrierBancrupties and unemployment with accompanying social disruptionNationalistic and fascist movements gather strengthJapanese expansion in Asia
18German foreign policy after 33 Hitler comes to power in 1933His popularity is not least due to his aggresive ideas about foreign policy. He wants to make Germany strong again by:destroying the Versailles-treatybuild upp the armyunite Germansaccquiring lebensraum in the eastDominance of the aryan race (space and race)Historians do not agree if these are new in German policy and if he planned a major war to obtain these aims.Brest-Litovsk was based on these principles
19Breakdown of Versailles Leaves disarmament conference and league of nations oct 1933Anti-agression pact with Poland 1934Dollfuss assassinated by Austrian Nazis 1934Saar votes to return to Germany 1935Reintroduction of conscription march 1935Plans for rearmament extend back to Weimar (1932)Oct 33 confirmed in a national plebisciteBritain has regretts because of Versailles and suggested increase in german army and decrease in french army under international control – the french furious -
20Weakness of France and UK Depression, eight governments 33-35, the army was defensive, no offensive or bombing capacity, pacifism.BritainSmall army busy overseas in empire, support for disarmament and league of nations. Taxes unpopular during depression.Versailles unpopularBritain wants to negotiate with Hitler
21Anglo-German naval pact Dollfuss assassination got Italy, France and Britain to condemn Germany April 1935 at StresaFrance and Russia sign a treaty of mutual assistance may 1935Hitler made an naval pact with angry Britts, allowed 35% of British naval power – triple existing levels – France not consultedSo much for the united Stresa frontAGNP and the Abyssinian crisis alienated Mussolini
22Mussolini and the Germans In 1934 M stopped a Nazi putch in Austria.Turning points in M attitude towards Germany:Anglo-German naval agreementM was displeased with the economic sanctions applied by the League of Nations after the invasion of Abbysina even if they were uselessHitler did not criticize the invasion.Both M and Hitler supported Franco in the Spanish civil war.1936 Berlin-Rome axis Anti-comintern pact with Germany and Japan Pact of Steel.
23Hitler takes action 1936-38 Mussolinis turn encourages Hitler Remilitarisation of Rhineland march 1936The western powers take no actionOlympic games in Berlin 1936Hossbach memorandumAnschluss with Austria march 1938Schuschnigg chancellor of Austria had announced a plebiscite after Nazis staged demonstration in all major cities.Hitler decided to invade Austria
25AppeasementBritain and later France try to avoid war with Italy and Germany by giving way to their demands.Time: Locarno to German occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 39.Munich sept 1938 is the high point.Why?Avoid war at all cost (pacifism among the public)Rearmament is to expensive in depressionThe demands of Germany are reasonableHitler is better than StalinUse the peace for British rearmament
26Munich: highlight of appeasement: Demonstrations in Sudetenland –Hitler wants to invade CzechoslovakiaSudetenland handed over to Germany at a four power conference in sept 1938Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, DaladierCzechs and Russians excludedThe effect of appeasement and MunichHitler convinced of British and French weaknessStalin suspects that the Western powers are giving Germany free play in Eastern Europe
291939 March - Germany occupies what is left of Czechoslovakia Public opinion in the west turnsBritain promises to defend Pollands independence but are to slow to approach the USSRHitler wants Danzig and the Polish corridorAugust 24 German-Russian non-agression pactSept. 1. German invasion of PolandSept. 3. Britain declares war against Germany.