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Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany

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1 Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
World Civilization

2 Germany after WWI 1919- the Kaiser abdicated
The Weimar Republic was created. Strain of reparations payments + Great Depression depressed Germany’s economy. hyperinflation

3 Adolf Hitler’s Early Life
Born in Austria-1889 Developed strong anti-Semitic feelings while living in Vienna. Rejected from art school Mother’s doctor was a Jew Many Jews were rich Fought for the Germans in WWI after Austria rejected him.

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6 Hitler’s Background Joined the Nazi party in 1919.
National Socialist German Workers Arrested in 1923 for treason after he tried to stage a takeover. 9 months in jail. Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison. “My Struggle”

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8 Mein Kampf Germans belonged to “master race”
Main Ideas: Germans belonged to “master race” Jews, Serbs, Poles, etc… were enemies All Germans should unite to form 1 great nation. Germany should expand to gain lebensraum, or living space.

9 The Nazi Party Nazi membership increased to 1 million.
Hitler promised to end reparations, create jobs, and rearm Germany. Basically, make Germany great again. Instilled strong feelings of nationalism. Appealed to Germans b/c of horrible economy.

10 Hitler becomes Chancellor
Hitler was named chancellor of Germany in 1933 Not popular with politicians, but better choice. Communism was spreading rapidly; Hitler seemed the lesser of 2 evils.

11 Hitler creates a totalitarian state
Abolished all parties except Nazi party Ended civil rights Used military force to arrest/execute opponents SS (Schutzstaffel) Gestapo All Quiet on the Western Front burned

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13 Nazism and Religion ~Martin Niemoller, Lutheran min.
“The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up. ~Martin Niemoller, Lutheran min.

14 Hitler’s anti-Semitism
1933- Nuremberg Laws passed Prohibited Jews from: Attending/teaching at German schools Holding govt. jobs Practicing law or medicine Publishing books Many Jews fled (Albert Einstein)

15 Night of the Broken Glass
Kristallnacht – Nov. 9-10, 1938 Nazi mobs attacked Jewish communities Homes, businesses, synagogues were damaged Beginning of the elimination of Jews

16 Concentration Camps: Auschwitz

17 Hitler disobeys Versailles Treaty
Hitler began rebuilding the military Also sent German troops into the Rhineland 30 mile wide buffer zone between France and Germany. The League of Nations was supposed to enforce the Treaty of Versailles.

18 Policy of Appeasement Why wasn’t Hitler stopped?
Hitler was encouraged by lack of response Formed alliance with Italy and Japan. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis The three nations became known as the Axis Powers.

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20 Appeasement 1938- Germany annexed Austria Anschluss
1938- Hitler demands the Sudetenland Western region of Czechoslovakia 3 million Germans Czech govt. asks France for help. Prepare for war.

21 The Munich Conference 1938- Germany, Italy, GB, France
GB and France agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for his promise that he would stop there. Less than 6 months later, he had taken over all of Czechoslovakia.

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23 Nazi-Soviet Pact Nonaggression pact between Hitler and the Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union. NOT a friendly alliance, but one based on mutual benefit.

24 Hitler and Stalin

25 WWII Begins Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland
GB and France had promised to protect its independence. Sept. 3, 1939: GB and France declare war on Germany.

26 “Blitzkrieg” Lightning War Luftwaffe, tanks, infantry
Poland was “wiped off the map” in less than a month Winter 1939-Spring quiet “sitzkrieg” or “phony war”

27 Germany’s Expansion April Hitler launched a blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark. Change in British leadership Neville Chamberlain stepped down King George VI asked Winston Churchill to take over as GB’s new Prime Minister. Netherlands, Belgium fell next.

28 Dunkirk May 1940- Germans came through the Ardennes Forest to France.
Bypassed the Maginot Line – system of fortifications along the German/French border. British and French troops were trapped!

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30 Dunkirk Dunkirk- port city on the English Channel.
British sent any and all ships/boats to rescue the trapped soldiers. Evacuated troops across the Channel to Britain amidst German air raids. Saved 338,000 soldiers.

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32 The Fall of France France surrendered in June 1940.
Germans occupied northern France; set up a puppet govt in the South. “Vichy France”

33 Operation Sea Lion The only major power left in Hitler’s way was Britain. Prior to invading, he launched heavy air strikes. Aug – Daily bombings began. Brilliant air battles between the Luftwaffe and the RAF.

34 The Blitz Sept 1940-bombings on London began.
Cont. for 57 straight nights Britain refused to surrender! Londoners hid underground in the Subway for shelter. Operation Sea Lion failed!

35 Hitler abandoned the idea of conquering GB for awhile.
Germany & Italy sent troops to North Africa. GB controlled Egypt, and the Axis Powers wanted access to the oil-rich Middle East. Erwin Rommel ~ the Desert Fox

36 Erwin Rommel

37 Next, Hitler conquered the Balkan nations.
Operation Barbarossa- Hitler’s plan to invade the Soviet Union. He wanted the land and vast resources of this region. Also wanted to crush communism and his powerful rival- Stalin.

38 Invasion began on June 22, 1941. The USSR’s Red Army was not prepared. As they retreated, they burned and destroyed anything useful to the Germans. What’s this policy called? By December, temps in the Soviet Union had reached -40 degrees.

39 Leningrad German army had the city surrounded. Hitler tried to starve the 2.5 million citizens living there. Ate cattle/horse feed, cats, dogs, crows, rats, and wallpaper to survive. Over 1 million people died.


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