Presentation on theme: "Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany"— Presentation transcript:
1Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany World Civilization
2Germany after WWI 1919- the Kaiser abdicated The Weimar Republic was created.Strain of reparations payments + Great Depression depressed Germany’s economy.hyperinflation
3Adolf Hitler’s Early Life Born in Austria-1889Developed strong anti-Semitic feelings while living in Vienna.Rejected from art schoolMother’s doctor was a JewMany Jews were richFought for the Germans in WWI after Austria rejected him.
6Hitler’s Background Joined the Nazi party in 1919. National Socialist German WorkersArrested in 1923 for treason after he tried to stage a takeover. 9 months in jail.Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison.“My Struggle”
8Mein Kampf Germans belonged to “master race” Main Ideas:Germans belonged to “master race”Jews, Serbs, Poles, etc… were enemiesAll Germans should unite to form 1 great nation.Germany should expand to gain lebensraum, or living space.
9The Nazi Party Nazi membership increased to 1 million. Hitler promised to end reparations, create jobs, and rearm Germany.Basically, make Germany great again.Instilled strong feelings of nationalism.Appealed to Germans b/c of horrible economy.
10Hitler becomes Chancellor Hitler was named chancellor of Germany in 1933Not popular with politicians, but better choice.Communism was spreading rapidly; Hitler seemed the lesser of 2 evils.
11Hitler creates a totalitarian state Abolished all parties except Nazi partyEnded civil rightsUsed military force to arrest/execute opponentsSS (Schutzstaffel)GestapoAll Quiet on the Western Front burned
13Nazism and Religion ~Martin Niemoller, Lutheran min. “The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up.~Martin Niemoller, Lutheran min.
14Hitler’s anti-Semitism 1933- Nuremberg Laws passedProhibited Jews from:Attending/teaching at German schoolsHolding govt. jobsPracticing law or medicinePublishing booksMany Jews fled (Albert Einstein)
15Night of the Broken Glass Kristallnacht – Nov. 9-10, 1938Nazi mobs attacked Jewish communitiesHomes, businesses, synagogues were damagedBeginning of the elimination of Jews
17Hitler disobeys Versailles Treaty Hitler began rebuilding the militaryAlso sent German troops into the Rhineland30 mile wide buffer zone between France and Germany.The League of Nations was supposed to enforce the Treaty of Versailles.
18Policy of Appeasement Why wasn’t Hitler stopped? Hitler was encouraged by lack of responseFormed alliance with Italy and Japan.Rome-Berlin-Tokyo AxisThe three nations became known as the Axis Powers.
20Appeasement 1938- Germany annexed Austria Anschluss 1938- Hitler demands the SudetenlandWestern region of Czechoslovakia3 million GermansCzech govt. asks France for help.Prepare for war.
21The Munich Conference 1938- Germany, Italy, GB, France GB and France agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for his promise that he would stop there.Less than 6 months later, he had taken over all of Czechoslovakia.
25WWII Begins Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland GB and France had promised to protect its independence.Sept. 3, 1939: GB and France declare war on Germany.
26“Blitzkrieg” Lightning War Luftwaffe, tanks, infantry Poland was “wiped off the map” in less than a monthWinter 1939-Spring quiet“sitzkrieg” or “phony war”
27Germany’s ExpansionApril Hitler launched a blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark.Change in British leadershipNeville Chamberlain stepped downKing George VI asked Winston Churchill to take over as GB’s new Prime Minister.Netherlands, Belgium fell next.
28Dunkirk May 1940- Germans came through the Ardennes Forest to France. Bypassed the Maginot Line – system of fortifications along the German/French border.British and French troops were trapped!
30Dunkirk Dunkirk- port city on the English Channel. British sent any and all ships/boats to rescue the trapped soldiers.Evacuated troops across the Channel to Britain amidst German air raids.Saved 338,000 soldiers.
32The Fall of France France surrendered in June 1940. Germans occupied northern France; set up a puppet govt in the South. “Vichy France”
33Operation Sea LionThe only major power left in Hitler’s way was Britain.Prior to invading, he launched heavy air strikes.Aug – Daily bombings began.Brilliant air battles between the Luftwaffe and the RAF.
34The Blitz Sept 1940-bombings on London began. Cont. for 57 straight nightsBritain refused to surrender!Londoners hid underground in the Subway for shelter.Operation Sea Lion failed!
35Hitler abandoned the idea of conquering GB for awhile. Germany & Italy sent troops to North Africa.GB controlled Egypt, and the Axis Powers wanted access to the oil-rich Middle East.Erwin Rommel ~ the Desert Fox
37Next, Hitler conquered the Balkan nations. Operation Barbarossa- Hitler’s plan to invade the Soviet Union.He wanted the land and vast resources of this region.Also wanted to crush communism and his powerful rival- Stalin.
38Invasion began on June 22, 1941.The USSR’s Red Army was not prepared. As they retreated, they burned and destroyed anything useful to the Germans.What’s this policy called?By December, temps in the Soviet Union had reached -40 degrees.
39LeningradGerman army had the city surrounded. Hitler tried to starve the 2.5 million citizens living there.Ate cattle/horse feed, cats, dogs, crows, rats, and wallpaper to survive.Over 1 million people died.