Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Hitler and Fascism"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rise of Hitler and Fascism 4/15/2017The Rise of Hitler and Fascism
210 April 2013Objectives:Students will talk and write about why people in Germany voted for Hitler
3What is this woman doing? Why do you think she might be doing it?
4Politics in Europe After WWI New Democracies (Provisional Government – Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy)Not stable (lots of political parties)What happens when you are with a large group of people and a decision needs to be made?New German Government: Weimar RepublicDemocracy was new to GermanyBlamed for signing Treaty of Versailles
5Economic Crisis in Germany Hadn’t raised taxes during the war to pay for itJust printed more moneyWhy is this a problem?What happens to the value of something when you have more and more of it?
6This creates INFLATION Definition: “a continual increase in the price of goods and services” (from wordcentral.com)Loaf of bread1918: less than 1 mark1922: more than 160 marks1932: 2 billion marksWhat does this mean for grocery shopping?What does this mean if you live on a fixed income?How do you feel about your government?
7Other Problems….. Lack of food production leading to famine Flu EpidemicSoldiers returning from war; lack respect for the Weimar Gov’tAnger over the Treaty of Versailles; seen as treasonous
8Global Efforts for Peace 1925: Germany and France meet and agree never to go to war again.Germany agreed to respect borders of France and BelgiumAdmitted to League of NationsKellogg – Briand peace pact (Kellogg = US, Briand = FrenchAlmost every nation in the world (including the USSR) signs“to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”Is this realistic? Why or why not?
9Meanwhile, in the rest of Europe . . . Economic boom, mostly due to America investing money there.Good times.What will happen in 1929, then, when the American Stock Market crashes?
10Worldwide Economic Depression United States Great DepressionUS bankers demand payment of loans from overseasAmerican investors withdraw money from EuropeWorld trade drops by 65%Worst impacts in Germany/Austria. Also bad in central Europe, Japan, and Latin America
112 Candidates . . . It is the early 1930s in Germany. What is on your mind as a German citizen?With a partner:Read the ideas of both candidatesOn the back of your half sheet, create answers to the three numbered questions.
12The Rise of Fascism Why is this attractive? What is Fascism? political movement (bigger than one party)existed in many countriesValues:loyalty to the state (Extremely nationalistic)obedience to a leaderNations must struggleEach class has their place and function in societyPromises:fix the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, restore national prideWhy is this attractive?
13Benito Mussolini comes to Power in Italy 1919 Founded the Fascist PartyNot popular at firstItalians get frustrated by inflation and unemploymentit becomes more popular - people believe Mussolini when he says he will give Italy stronger leadership.,000 Fascists march on Rome, demanding that the king put Mussolini in charge of the government.Il Duce. Mussolini becomes the leader, legally.Abolishes democracy, outlaws other political parties, starts secret police, censorship
14Hitler’s Rise to Power Born in Austria in 1889 4/15/2017Hitler’s Rise to PowerBorn in Austria in 1889Dropped out of high school and went to Vienna at age 19 to pursue art, but rejected by Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.During the Great War (WWI)Served 4 years at front lines of German Army in WWIDevastated by defeat of Germany in WWI
154/15/2017Origins of Nazi PartyAt the encouragement of the army, Hitler joined the DAP, the German Workers PartyMet in beer hallsrevenge for the Treaty of Versaillesanti-SemitismHitler learned to give speeches and soon became leaderRenamed party the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDWP) or “Nazi” party
16Beer Hall Putsch November 23, 1923 Inspired by Mussolini in Rome 4/15/2017Beer Hall PutschNovember 23, 1923Inspired by Mussolini in Rome“Putsch” (violent overthrow) attempt. Nazi party attempted to overthrow government of Bavaria (region in Germany)Hitler gave speech and was arrested as political prisoner (Sentenced to 5 years, out in 9 months)
17Munich, 1923 Masses on the streets during the Putsch 4/15/2017Munich, 1923 Masses on the streets during the Putsch
181929 Great Depression in Germany 4/15/20171929 Great Depression in Germany6 million unemployedBlamed Treaty of Versaillesforced Germany to pay huge war reparations, led to inflationLost German landTurned over German colonies which provided markets for German goodsGermans became disillusioned, resentful
19Hitler’s Platform Took advantage of feeling in Germany Called Versailles an outrage, and vowed to regain the lands taken away.Declared Germany’s need for more Lebensraum (living space)Used Jews as scapegoat- Jewish capitalists in Western countries, Jewish communists in Eastern countriesGerman Jews were assimilated, some rose to high ranks in government, the economy, and society--easy target4/15/2017Hitler’s PlatformTook advantage of feeling in GermanyCalled Versailles an outrage, and vowed to regain the lands taken away.Declared Germany’s need for more Lebensraum (living space)Used Jews as scapegoat- Jewish capitalists in Western countries, Jewish communists in Eastern countriesGerman Jews were assimilated, some rose to high ranks in government, the economy, and society--easy target
20Post War Blame Jews were blamed for the loss of World War 1 Common belief that Jews controlled the banks which refused to continue the war effort ending Germany’s war effort in 1918The freedoms of the Weimar Republic and the Great Depression that followed the war were squarely blamed on Jews in Germany
21Anti-SemitismPrejudice, hatred of, or discrimination of Jews for reasons connected to their heritageNazis made developed the idea of Jews being considered a “race” of people (ie. “Jewish Blood”)—Late 1800’sThink About Your Religion……How do we describe someone who is “Christian” or “Muslim”Best way to think about it is in terms of “family”
22Hitler to become Chancellor 4/15/2017Hitler to become ChancellorJan 30, 1933 President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, legallyHitler had to form a coalition government with other political parties, but instead called for new elections
23Politics in German Parliament 4/15/2017Politics in German ParliamentElection did not produce a Nazi majorityHitler persuaded President Hindenburg to sign a decree that allowed Hitler to arrest oppositionHitler arrested many members of the Communist and Social Democrat parties
24The Enabling Act (1933) Gave powers to Chancellor 4/15/2017The Enabling Act (1933)Gave powers to ChancellorCreation of new lawsControl of budgetApproval of treatiesCreation of constitutional amendmentsPromised to respect President’s veto, but didn’tGave Hitler legal right to dictatorshipHitler proclaimed the beginning of Third Reich
25Hitler as Fuhrer Banned other political parties 4/15/2017Hitler as FuhrerBanned other political partiesHitler got rid of all non-Nazi government officials and replaced them with NazisArrested opponentsBanned strikes and dissolved labor unionsPut millions of Germans to work! (They LIKED him for this)