Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Hitler and Fascism. 10 April 2013 Objectives: Students will talk and write about why people in Germany voted for Hitler."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Hitler and Fascism
10 April 2013 Objectives: Students will talk and write about why people in Germany voted for Hitler
What is this woman doing? Why do you think she might be doing it?
Politics in Europe After WWI New Democracies (Provisional Government – Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy) Not stable (lots of political parties) What happens when you are with a large group of people and a decision needs to be made? New German Government: Weimar Republic Democracy was new to Germany Blamed for signing Treaty of Versailles
Economic Crisis in Germany Hadn’t raised taxes during the war to pay for it Just printed more money Why is this a problem? What happens to the value of something when you have more and more of it?
This creates INFLATION Definition: “a continual increase in the price of goods and services” (from wordcentral.com) Loaf of bread 1918: less than 1 mark 1922: more than 160 marks 1932: 2 billion marks What does this mean for grocery shopping? What does this mean if you live on a fixed income? How do you feel about your government?
Other Problems….. Lack of food production leading to famine Flu Epidemic Soldiers returning from war; lack respect for the Weimar Gov’t Anger over the Treaty of Versailles; seen as treasonous
Global Efforts for Peace 1925: Germany and France meet and agree never to go to war again. Germany agreed to respect borders of France and Belgium Admitted to League of Nations Kellogg – Briand peace pact (Kellogg = US, Briand = French Almost every nation in the world (including the USSR) signs “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy” Is this realistic? Why or why not?
Meanwhile, in the rest of Europe... Economic boom, mostly due to America investing money there. Good times. What will happen in 1929, then, when the American Stock Market crashes?
Worldwide Economic Depression United States Great Depression US bankers demand payment of loans from overseas American investors withdraw money from Europe World trade drops by 65% Worst impacts in Germany/Austria. Also bad in central Europe, Japan, and Latin America
2 Candidates... It is the early 1930s in Germany. What is on your mind as a German citizen? With a partner: Read the ideas of both candidates On the back of your half sheet, create answers to the three numbered questions.
The Rise of Fascism What is Fascism? political movement (bigger than one party) existed in many countries Values: loyalty to the state (Extremely nationalistic) obedience to a leader Nations must struggle Each class has their place and function in society Promises: fix the economy, punish those responsible for hard times, restore national pride Why is this attractive?
Benito Mussolini comes to Power in Italy 1919 Founded the Fascist Party Not popular at first Italians get frustrated by inflation and unemployment it becomes more popular - people believe Mussolini when he says he will give Italy stronger leadership ,000 Fascists march on Rome, demanding that the king put Mussolini in charge of the government. Il Duce. Mussolini becomes the leader, legally. Abolishes democracy, outlaws other political parties, starts secret police, censorship
Hitler ’ s Rise to Power Born in Austria in 1889 Dropped out of high school and went to Vienna at age 19 to pursue art, but rejected by Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. During the Great War (WWI) Served 4 years at front lines of German Army in WWI Devastated by defeat of Germany in WWI
Origins of Nazi Party At the encouragement of the army, Hitler joined the DAP, the German Workers Party Met in beer halls revenge for the Treaty of Versailles anti-Semitism Hitler learned to give speeches and soon became leader Renamed party the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDWP) or “Nazi” party
Beer Hall Putsch November 23, 1923 Inspired by Mussolini in Rome “Putsch” (violent overthrow) attempt. Nazi party attempted to overthrow government of Bavaria (region in Germany) Hitler gave speech and was arrested as political prisoner (Sentenced to 5 years, out in 9 months)
Munich, 1923 Masses on the streets during the Putsch
1929 Great Depression in Germany 6 million unemployed Blamed Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to pay huge war reparations, led to inflation Lost German land Turned over German colonies which provided markets for German goods Germans became disillusioned, resentful
Hitler ’ s Platform Took advantage of feeling in Germany Called Versailles an outrage, and vowed to regain the lands taken away. Declared Germany’s need for more Lebensraum (living space) Used Jews as scapegoat- Jewish capitalists in Western countries, Jewish communists in Eastern countries German Jews were assimilated, some rose to high ranks in government, the economy, and society--easy target Took advantage of feeling in Germany Called Versailles an outrage, and vowed to regain the lands taken away. Declared Germany’s need for more Lebensraum (living space) Used Jews as scapegoat- Jewish capitalists in Western countries, Jewish communists in Eastern countries German Jews were assimilated, some rose to high ranks in government, the economy, and society--easy target
Post War Blame Jews were blamed for the loss of World War 1 Common belief that Jews controlled the banks which refused to continue the war effort ending Germany’s war effort in 1918 The freedoms of the Weimar Republic and the Great Depression that followed the war were squarely blamed on Jews in Germany
Anti-Semitism Prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination of Jews for reasons connected to their heritage Nazis made developed the idea of Jews being considered a “race” of people (ie. “Jewish Blood”)—Late 1800’s Think About Your Religion……How do we describe someone who is “Christian” or “Muslim” Best way to think about it is in terms of “family”
Hitler to become Chancellor Jan 30, 1933 President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, legally Hitler had to form a coalition government with other political parties, but instead called for new elections
Politics in German Parliament Election did not produce a Nazi majority Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to sign a decree that allowed Hitler to arrest opposition Hitler arrested many members of the Communist and Social Democrat parties
The Enabling Act (1933) Gave powers to Chancellor Creation of new laws Control of budget Approval of treaties Creation of constitutional amendments Promised to respect President’s veto, but didn’t Gave Hitler legal right to dictatorship Hitler proclaimed the beginning of Third Reich
Hitler as Fuhrer Banned other political parties Hitler got rid of all non-Nazi government officials and replaced them with Nazis Arrested opponents Banned strikes and dissolved labor unions Put millions of Germans to work! (They LIKED him for this)