When FDR took over in 1933, world prospects were grim. Europe was again in shambles and close to war. Europe did not like democracy or the ideals that the United States was trying to promote.
PART 1 I. The Rise of Hitler A. Background –1. Born in Austria –2. H.S. dropout –3. Failed art school entrance exam –4. lived on charity –5. WWI--joined army only a corporal –6. Began own political party –7.Hated Jews a. blamed them for Germany’s problems b. wanted to kill them all B. Hitler’s beliefs –1. Wrote Mein Kampf---Bible of the Nazis –2. Germans = “Master Race” –3. Good gov = dictatorship –4. Christianity and democracy were lies –5. “Third Reich”--last for 1000 years –6. at first, nobody took him seriously
C. The Nazi Party 1. Hitler’s party 2. Millions joined 3. Resented Treaty of Versailles
D. Reasons for Resentment of Treaty of Versailles A. Too harsh –1. Took away German land (EX: Poland and Czechoslovakia formed; Alsace-Lorraine region returned to France; German coal- mining region given to France for 15 years) –2. Gave up colonies in Africa and all over the world –3. Pay war reparations –4. Decrease Germany’s military (no more than 100,000 soldiers) –5. Germany not allowed to make or import war materials –6. led to depression in Germany –7. led to high inflation in Germany
United Streaming Video The Rise of Nationalism 8:32
II. Hitler Comes to Power A. Germany 1. Economy was terrible 2. Weak gov. 3. Who will help? 4. Who is to blame? B. Hitler 1. Blamed Jews 2. Great speaker 3. great organizer 4. Others didn’t take Hitler serious 5. killed innocent people 6. started concentration camps
Hitler Comes to Power, Cont. C. “Heil Hitler!” D. Concentration camps 1. Jews 2. anti-Nazi Protestants and Catholics 3. gas chambers 4. extracted gold teeth of corpses 5. ashes = fertilizer E. other countries 1. Russia-- Joseph Stalin 2. Japan--Tojo 3. Italy--Benito Mussolini
For More on the Holocaust, Click on the Link Below http://historywiz.com/holocaust- mm.htm
United Streaming Video In Memoriam: The Holocaust 10:05
III. The Looming Threat of War A. Italy, Japan and Russia 1. WWI = ally 2. WWII = enemy B. Germany 1. building great army and weapons C. Beginning 1. Italy invades Ethiopia (1935) 2. Germany invades Rhineland (1936) 3. Hitler and Mussolini support Francisco Franco in Spain a. Civil war in Spain WAR IS BREWING!!!!!!!!!
IV. Japanese-American Relations A. Military taking over Japan 1. Japan seized Manchuria (1931) 2. Attacked weak China (1937) 3. Sank U.S. Panay (1937) 4. U.S. worried, but no war B. Japan bought weapons from U.S. since 1911 1. using them on China 2. we ended this 1937
V. FDR and Neutrality A. FDR: can’t stay neutral if fighting continues B. Many people want peace 1. pacifists 2. isolationists 3. German Americans C. 1935-1936--Neutrality Acts passed ***Neutrality Acts discussed on pg. 660 right column last 2 paragraphs.
United Streaming Video American Isolationism 2:41
VI. Hitler on the March ***Refer to the Map on page 661 A. Germany’s “Third Reich” 1. Austria 2. Czechoslovakia 3. Poland B. 1938 Germany takes over Austria C. Germany takes over the Sudetenland (Czech) D. Munich Pact (Sept. 1938) 1. P.M. Chamberlain (G.B.) 2. Premier Daladier (France) 3. Hitler (Germany)
Hitler on the March, continued ***Appeasement!!!!! G.B. and France appeased Hitler by giving him Czechoslovakia!!!!! ***If they would have been tough, Hitler would have been ousted!!!!!!!! Now, Hitler is on a high and getting more and more power!!!! Did the appeasement work?
VII. War Comes to Europe A. Russia--non aggression pact with Ger. (1939) 1. Germany gets West Poland 2. S.U. gets Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and East Poland 3. Germany = no 2 front war! 4. S.U. = buffer zone from Germany
War Comes to Europe, continued B. Hitler attacks Poland 1. Sept. 1, 1939--invasion begins 2. Sept. 3--France and England declare war on Germany 3. Sept. 17--Stalin (S.U.) invades E. Poland 4. Sept. 29--Poland gives in a. Germany = West Poland b. Soviet Union = East Poland The attack on Poland is the official beginning of World War II in Europe.
United Streaming Video War Comes to Europe 9:10
VIII. The U.S. Reacts A. FDR wants to help the Allies ***(No neutral this time!!!!) B. If wait, bad guys may win. C. 1939--Congress allows U.S. to sell arms to Allies
OGT Multiple Choice A political organization that many Germans, unhappy with conditions in their nation after World War I, joined was Hitler’s A. Communist party B. Nazi party C. Fascist party D. German Christian party
OGT Multiple Choice In the 1930’s, the U.S. government passed laws that were designed to keep us out of war. These laws were known as the A. Axis Acts B. World War II Acts C. Neutrality Acts D. Hitler Acts
OGT Multiple Choice _____ A place invented by the Nazis to hold and dispose of Jews was a(n) A. German district B. quarantine camp C. concentration camp D. isolation district
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of the goals of the Holocaust during World War II was to A. eliminate the Jewish population B. achieve greater diversity of the population of Germany C. create a new nation for the Jewish population D. eliminate the German population
OGT Multiple Choice The event that started World War II in Europe was Germany’s invasion of A. the Soviet Union B. Belgium C. Poland D. France
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of the causes of World War II is considered to be the policy of appeasement of German demands. This was evidenced by which of the following events? A. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in northeast China in 1931 B. The Soviet Union sending troops to fight in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 C. The British and French declaring war on Germany after it invaded Poland in 1939 D. The British and French agreeing to Hitler’s demands for the Sudetenland in 1938
OGT Multiple Choice (2005 Practice Test) In what way did the Treaty of Versailles establish conditions that led to the outbreak of World War II? A. It called for dissolving the League of Nations, thus removing an organization for resolving future conflicts. B. It gave Germany too much power by letting Germany keep the Alsace-Lorraine region of France. C. It imposed harsh reparations payments on Germany, which led to economic and political instability. D. It weakened the Allied countries by making France, England, and Russia reduce the size of their armies.
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) Which of the following was not a military dictator who rose to power in the years between the two world wars? A. Hitler--Germany B. Napolean--France C. Tojo--Japan D. Mussolini--Italy
OGT Multiple Choice The agreement to appease Hitler and give the Nazis the rest of Czechoslovakia was done in the A. Versailles Peace Treaty B. Platt Amendment C. Neutrality Act of 1937 D. Munich Pact
OGT Multiple Choice Adolf Hitler wrote a book that was the Bible of the Nazi Party. This book was called A. The Nazi Struggle B. The World According to Hitler C. Mein Kampf D. Communist Belief
OGT Multiple Choice Which was not part of the non aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany in 1939? A. Germany would get West Poland B. The Soviet Union would be forced to declare war on the United States C. Each would promise NOT to attack each other D. The Soviet Union would get Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and East Poland
OGT Multiple Choice Hitler’s goal of uniting all of the German areas together into one empire was known as the A. 1st Reich B. 2nd Reich C. 3rd Reich D. 4th Reich
OGT Multiple Choice All of the following were examples of aggression by the Axis Powers prior to 1939 except A. Germany invading the Rhineland B. Italy invading Ethiopia C. The United States invading France D. Japan invading Manchuria
OGT Extended Response (Practice Test Booklet 2005) Analyze how the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, at the end of World War I, helped lead into World War II. (4 points) Write your answer in the answer document.
OGT Short Answer (Practice Test Booklet 2005) Explain how economic, political, and social unrest led to the rise of militaristic regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan during the 1920’s and 1930’s. (2 points)
PART 2 I. The Battlefield is Everywhere A. For 6 months = no war “Phony War” 1. British moving troops to France 2. French sat behind Maginot Line a. 350 mile line of tunnels, concrete forts, and antitank fields 3. Headlines: “phony war” B. Nov. 1939 1. Soviet Union attacks Finland 2. Finns were brave C. April 1940-- “Blitzkrieg”
II. The New Warfare A. Blitzkrieg “Lightning warfare” 1. strike quickly (Much different than WWI) 2. air power 3. use fast vehicles a. planes, tanks, trucks, motorcycles! B. Hitler on the move 1. April 9, 1940-- Denmark and Norway 2. May, 1940-- Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg 3. Went around the Maginot Line into France 4. June 14, 1940-- Paris, France ***France surrenders by end of June
III. The U.S. Prepares for War A. FDR feared the Nazis 1. 50,000 planes/year starting in 1941 2. two-ocean navy (Read fireside chat on 667--left hand column) B. Some still want “NEUTRALITY!” 1. FDR: If we don’t help GB, Nazis would win
IV. The Battle of Britain A. Great Britain all alone! 1. 1940: Hitler bombs GB 2. Wants to win before U.S. joins B. Decoding 1. Britain decoded many German secrets a. able to move RAF around “Radar”= ra(dio) + d(etecting) + a(nd) + r(anging) C. Devastation 1. GB still devastated 2. many died D. RAF saved GB 1. held off Germany until U.S. enters
V. World Affairs and the Presidential Campaign of 1940 A. Wendell Willkie (Rep) 1. Hated New Deal/Gov. aid 2. TVA competed against him 3. Wanted to help Great Britain B. FDR (Dem) C. WINNER: FDR. 3rd Term as President!
Blue = Wendell Wellkie Red = Franklin D. Roosevelt
VI. Helping the British A. Neutral laws! GB needs our help now! 1. FDR clever plan a. Lend-Lease --lend to GB anything. --gave GB destroyers to help vs. U-Boats B. FDR and Winston Churchill (GB’s PM) 1. Met to discuss world affairs (1941)
OGT Multiple Choice The type of warfare used during World War I was that of trench warfare. In World War II, Germany used a new type of warfare that was lightning warfare, a very fast paced method of fighting. The name of this new warfare was A. thunder fighting B. lightning bombing C. blitzkreig D. nuclear warfare
OGT Multiple Choice The system of French defenses built to defend themselves from Germany was called the A. Maginot Line B. Ultra defense C. Sea Lion plan D. buffer zone
OGT Multiple Choice Which person was the 1st to win election to the Presidency for a 3rd term (1940)? A. Wendell Willkie B. Theodore Roosevelt C. Winston Churchill D. Franklin Roosevelt
OGT Short Answer The New Deal helped lower unemployment and get our economy back on its feet. However, it did not totally get us out of the Great Depression. Describe how World War II finally got the United States completely out of depression. (2 points)
PART 3 War Comes to the United States ***U.S. getting closer to war. We didn’t want to send troops, but the BAD GUYS (AXIS POWERS) were winning everywhere!!!!!!!!!
I. The War Spreads A. FDR extends the zone “necessary to the defense of the United States 1. Greenland 2. Iceland B. Seize German ships
The War Spreads, continued C. Hitler’s blunder 1. June 22, 1942--attacks Russia a. broke non-aggression pact 2. (Tell Napoleon story--pg. 670 bottom left col.) 3. Germany 15 miles from Moscow a. Russian winter D. German subs 1. sank one of our ships (The Greer) 2. (Tell Greer story pg. 670 right column) 3. Convoys--armed merchant ships 4. The Kearny and The Reuben sunk a. U.S. in an undeclared war already
II. Trouble in the Pacific oA. Japan taking over in Asia o1. took many weak countries o2. now they wanted China o3. U.S. embargo oB. U.S. and Japan fight o1. Japan wants us to stop helping China o2. U.S. tells Japan to stay out of China o***Japan faces a decision. o1. Give up hopes of an empire o2. Go to war
Trouble in the Pacific, continued C. General Hideki Tojo--leader of Japan HE CHOOSES WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! D. U.S. breaks Japan code 1. we knew when they would attack 2. we DID NOT know where 3. We thought they would attack: a. Thailand b. Indonesia c. Philippines 4. Japan ended up attacking.....................
III. The Attack on Pearl Harbor A. Sunday, December 7, 1941 at 8am 1. Japan diplomats at White House to discuss peace 2. 191 Japanese warplanes attack PH airfields 3. dropped bombs on our ships 4. 1 hour later: a. 170 more warplanes
The Attack on Pearl Harbor, continued B. Total surprise to U.S. 1. Greatest military disaster in U.S. history 2. 150 U.S. warplanes destroyed 3. Most ships destroyed 4. Over 2000 killed
Next day: FDR announces the “Day that will Live in Infamy” has put us into war. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
OGT Multiple Choice According to many historians, Hitler’s greatest military blunder was A. taking the Rhineland B. speaking badly about FDR C. attacking the Soviet Union D. invading France
OGT Multiple Choice The “Day of Infamy” refers to the A. German bombing of Great Britain B. Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor C. signing of the Munich Pact D. German seizure of Czechoslovakia
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States entered World War II as a result of A. Japan attacking Pearl Harbor B. Japan invading Manchuria C. Germany bombing Great Britain D. Germany invading Poland
OGT Multiple Choice The most effective factor in slowing the Nazi drive into the Soviet Union in 1941 was A. the Soviet air force B. winter weather C. the breaking of the Nazi code D. United States helping the Soviet Union
OGT Short Answer Describe the changes in the foreign policy of the United States from one of isolation during the late 1930’s to a full-fledged combatant in World War II in December, 1941. (2 points)