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Chapter 29 Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 29 Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945

2 Hugo Jager’s photograph of a crowd of enthusiastic Hitler supporters. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

3 This picture captures the essence of the totalitarian interpretation of dynamic modern dictatorship. The uniformed members of the Nazi Party have willingly merged themselves into a single force and await the command of the godlike leader. Nazi Mass Rally, 1936 AP/Wide World Photos

4 Russian artists occupied a prominent position in the international avant- garde in the early twentieth century, and the Ukrainian-born Malevich is widely recognized as a leading figure in the development of modern abstract art. Malevich originated the theory of suprematism, whereby he abandoned images from nature and painted pure forms that were beautiful in themselves, as in this outstanding example. When the Bolsheviks condemned abstraction and demanded “socialist realism,” Malevich returned to more recognizable forms and taught design. Kazimir Malevich: Suprematism, ca 1917 Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

5 Art in the Stalinist era generally followed the official doctrine of socialist realism, representing objects in a literal style and celebrating Soviet achievements. Characteristically, this poster glorifies the working class, women’s equality (in hard labor at least), mammoth factories, and the Communist Party (represented by the hammer and sickle by the woman’s foot). Assailed by propaganda, Soviet citizens often found refuge in personal relations and deep friendships. “Let’s All Get to Work, Comrades!” From Art of the October Revolution, Mikhail Guerman [Aurora Publishers, Leningrad]. Reproduced by permission of Mikhail Guerman

6 At first Mussolini distrusted Hitler, but Mussolini’s conquest of Ethiopia in 1936 and Hitler’s occupation of the Rhineland brought the two dictators together in a close alliance. State visits by Mussolini to Berlin in 1937 and by Hitler to Rome in 1938 included gigantic military reviews, which were filmed to impress the whole world. Uniformed Italian fascists accompany this motorcade. Hitler and Mussolini in Italy, May 1938 Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

7 As unemployment increased almost fourfold from 1929 to 1930, millions of Germans felt the lash of poverty and hunger. This soup kitchen, operated by the Salvation Army in Berlin in 1930, is serving up free meals to a broad cross section of society—young and old, weak and able-bodied. The Great Depression in Germany Ullstein Bilderdienst/The Granger Collection, New York

8 This poster ad promotes the VE-301 receiver, “the world’s cheapest radio,” and claims that “All Germany listens to the Führer on the people’s receiver.” Constantly broadcasting official views and attitudes, the state- controlled media also put the Nazis’ favorite entertainment— gigantic mass meetings that climaxed with Hitler’s violent theatrical speeches— on an invisible stage for millions. Reaching a National Audience Bundesarchiv Koblenz Plak 003-022-025

9 Hitler believed that his relentless terror bombing of London—the “blitz”––could break the will of the British people. He was wrong. The blitz caused enormous destruction, but Londoners went about their business with courage and calm determination, as this unforgettable image of a milkman in the rubble suggests. London, 1940 Corbis

10 The map shows the extent of Hitler’s empire before the Battle of Stalingrad in late 1942 and the subsequent advances of the Allies until Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945. This map, combined with Map 29.1 on page 963, can be used to trace the rise and fall of the Nazi empire over time.(1) First, using Map 29.1, what was the first country to be conquered by Hitler (and divided with the Soviet Union)? (2) Second, locate Germany’s advance and retreat on the Russian front at different dates: December 1941, November 1942, Spring 1944, and February 1945. Locate the position of British and American forces on the battlefield at similar points in time, and then compare the respective Russian and British- American positions. What implications might the battle lines on February 1945 have for the postwar settlement in Europe? World War II in Europe

11 Primo Levi, who never stopped thinking, writing, and speaking about the Holocaust. Giansanti/Corbis Sygma


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