Presentation on theme: "Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION An Age of Uncertainty 1 SECTION A Global Depression 2 SECTION Fascism."— Presentation transcript:
Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION An Age of Uncertainty 1 SECTION A Global Depression 2 SECTION Fascism Rises in Europe 3 SECTION Aggressors on the March 4 31 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH
HOME Chapter Overview The 1920s see great changes in technology, science, and the arts. The Great Depression of the 1930s causes worldwide crises. Britain and France try to appease Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The United States isolates itself. 31 CHAPTER Years of Crisis, 1919–1939
1919 Weimar Republic established in Germany James Joyce writes Ulysses U.S. stock market crashes; Great Depression begins Japan seizes Manchuria Germany and Soviet Union sign nonaggression pact. 31 CHAPTER Time Line HOME Years of Crisis, 1919– Lindbergh crosses Atlantic in Spirit of St. Louis Hitler named German chancellor Spanish Civil War begins.
New ideas in science, the arts, and technology develop in the postwar period and change the way people look at the world and live their lives. Overview Assessment Key Idea An Age of Uncertainty 1 HOME
MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The postwar period was one of loss and uncertainty but also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas. Postwar trends in physics, psychiatry, art, literature, communication, music, and transportation still affect our lives. Overview An Age of Uncertainty 1 Assessment Albert Einstein theory of relativity Sigmund Freud existentialism Friedrich Nietzsche surrealism jazz Charles Lindbergh TERMS & NAMES HOME
FieldContributors Philosophy Literature Art Architecture Music Sartre, Jaspers, Nieztsche Kafka, Joyce Klee, Kandinsky, Braque, Picasso, Dali Wright, Gropius Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Ellington, African-American musicians 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. For each category shown below, name at least two people you read about who contributed to that field. An Age of Uncertainty 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME
2. In your opinion, whose ideas had a bigger impact on the world—Einstein’s or Freud’s? Give reasons to support your position. THINK ABOUT Section An Age of Uncertainty 1 1 Assessment the state of knowledge before their contributions the field in which they worked how life would be different without their contributions ANSWER Einstein—theory of relativity changed scientific thought, upset absolute laws of science; in contrast, Freud’s field was new, unscientific. Freud—developed new theory of human mind; ushered in era of psychoanalysis; created new understanding of human behavior; Freud’s ideas had wider and more personal influence. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 1
An economic depression begins in the United States in It spreads throughout the world and lasts for a decade. Overview Assessment Key Idea A Global Depression 2 HOME
2 An economic depression in the United States spread throughout the world and lasted for a decade. Many social and economic programs introduced worldwide to combat the Great Depression are still operating. Overview Assessment coalition government Weimar Republic Great Depression Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME A Global Depression
2 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the effects of the Great Depression in the United States. Section 2 Assessment continued... HOME The Great Depression Businesses failed. Banks closed. Savings were lost. Farms were foreclosed. Unemployment rose.
2 2. The collapse of the American economy had a devastating effect on the world. List one cause for each of the following effects: American market for European goods dropped; unemployment rates soared; European banks and businesses closed. THINK ABOUT Section 2 Assessment economic conditions in the United States the interdependence of the economies of the world ANSWER continued... HOME A Global Depression High U.S. tariffs Drop in world trade Demand for repayment of American loans and withdrawal of American investment money Possible Responses:
2 3. What actions did the United States, Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries take to try to recover from the Great Depression? Give specific examples for each country. THINK ABOUT Section 2 Assessment coalition governments in Britain and France traditional community cooperative action in Scandinavia ANSWER HOME A Global Depression Roosevelt and the New Deal continued...
Section 2 2 Assessment United States—New Deal supported public works, financial aid to businesses and farms, money for welfare and relief programs; regulated stock market and banks Britain—National Government passed tariffs; increased taxes; regulated currency; decreased interest rates France—Popular Front enacted worker reforms Scandinavia—public works projects; raised pensions, unemployment insurance, housing subsidies, welfare benefits Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 2 A Global Depression
In response to political turmoil and economic crises, many countries in Europe, including Italy and Germany, turn to Fascist dictators. Overview Assessment Key Idea Fascism Rises in Europe 3 HOME GRAPH
In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy and Germany turned to totalitarian dictators. These dictators changed the course of history, and the world is still recovering from their abuse of power. Overview Assessment fascism Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Nazism Mein Kampf lebensraum Fascism Rises in Europe 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH
Fascism Rises in Europe 3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Mussolini and Hitler by using the four categories listed below. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME HitlerMussolini Method of taking power Style of leadership Handling of economic crisis Goals Appointed chancellorAppointed by king Dictator Revived economy Took control of economy Sought to regain lost lands and take over more Wanted Italy to return to its ancient greatness GRAPH
Fascism Rises in Europe 3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER During periods of crisis, people often turn to doctrines or leaders who promise to take charge and solve the country's problems. These doctrines or leaders often offer simple solutions to complex problems and blame outsiders, or scapegoats, for the problems. Possible Response: 2. Why did a movement like fascism and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler come to power during a period of crisis? THINK ABOUT what problems Italy and Germany faced political traditions in each country the state of the world at the time continued... HOME GRAPH
3. Refer to the History Makers features in this section. What biases in the speeches of Mussolini are mentioned? What techniques did he and Hitler use to appear powerful and capable to their listeners? Section Fascism Rises in Europe 3 3 Assessment ANSWER Mussolini talked about Italy’s past glory and often used words like “war” and “power.” He and Hitler appeared powerful by standing high above the crowds, using dramatic body language and forceful voices to stir up patriotic, violent emotions in the crowd. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 3 GRAPH
Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries. The League of Nations and the rest of the world do nothing to stop them, and the specter of another great war haunts Europe. Overview Assessment Key Idea Aggressors on the March 4 HOME MAP
As Germany, Italy, and Japan conquered other countries, the rest of the world did nothing to stop them. Many nations today take a more active and collective role in world affairs, as in the United Nations. Overview Assessment appeasement Axis Powers Francisco Franco isolationism Third Reich Munich Conference Aggressors on the March 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME MAP
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Trace the movement of Japan from democratic reform in the 1920s to military aggression in the 1930s by supplying the events following the dates shown below. Aggressors on the March 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME Signs treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders Signs Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war Great Depression puts military in control Invades Manchuria Allies with Germany Invades China MAP
Section 4 Assessment ANSWER 2. Review Germany’s aggressive actions after Hitler defied the Versailles Treaty by rebuilding Germany’s armed forces. At what point do you think Hitler concluded that he could take any territory without being stopped? Why? THINK ABOUT Hitler’s goals responses of the democracies to his statements and actions Aggressors on the March 4 the role of the League of Nations After Hitler renounced Versailles Treaty—nothing happened After seizing Rhineland—Britain urged appeasement After taking Austria—France and Britain ignored pledge to protect Austria After Munich Conference—Britain and France let Germany take Sudetenland Possible Responses: HOME continued... MAP
Section Aggressors on the March 4 4 Assessment ANSWER Yes—world leadership costs in money and respect; global economy costs in jobs and social services; cannot solve other countries’ problems No—power and prestige as a world leader; need to compete in a global economy; benefits from maintaining order Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 4 3. After World War I, many Americans became isolationists. Do you recommend that America practice isolationism today? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT the global economy America’s domestic problems the economic and political goals of other countries America’s role as world leader MAP