Presentation on theme: "31 Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 An Age of Uncertainty"— Presentation transcript:
1 31 Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 An Age of Uncertainty QUIT31CHAPTERYears of Crisis, 1919–1939Chapter OverviewTime Line1An Age of UncertaintySECTION2A Global DepressionSECTIONSECTION3Fascism Rises in EuropeGRAPH4Aggressors on the MarchMAPSECTIONVisual Summary
2 HOME31CHAPTERYears of Crisis, 1919–1939Chapter OverviewThe 1920s see great changes in technology, science, and the arts. The Great Depression of the 1930s causes worldwide crises. Britain and France try to appease Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The United States isolates itself.
3 31 Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 HOME Time Line 1919 1939 CHAPTERYears of Crisis, 1919–1939Time Line1919 Weimar Republic established in Germany.1927 Lindbergh crosses Atlantic in Spirit of St. Louis.1931 Japan seizes Manchuria.1936 Spanish Civil War begins.191919391922 James Joyce writes Ulysses.1929 U.S. stock market crashes; Great Depression begins.1933 Hitler named German chancellor.1939 Germany and Soviet Union sign nonaggression pact.
4 An Age of Uncertainty Key Idea 1 HOME1An Age of UncertaintyKey IdeaNew ideas in science, the arts, and technology develop in the postwar period and change the way people look at the world and live their lives.OverviewAssessment
5 An Age of Uncertainty Overview 1 • Albert Einstein HOME1An Age of UncertaintyTERMS & NAMESOverview• Albert Einstein• theory of relativity• Sigmund Freud• existentialism• Friedrich Nietzsche• surrealism• jazz• Charles LindberghMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe postwar period was one of loss and uncertainty but also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas.Postwar trends in physics, psychiatry, art, literature, communication, music, and transportation still affect our lives.Assessment
6 HOME1An Age of UncertaintySection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. For each category shown below, name at least two people you read about who contributed to that field.FieldContributorsPhilosophyLiteratureArtArchitectureMusicSartre, Jaspers, NieztscheKafka, JoyceKlee, Kandinsky, Braque, Picasso, DaliWright, GropiusStravinsky, Schoenberg, Ellington, African-American musicianscontinued . . .
7 HOME1An Age of UncertaintySection1Assessment2. In your opinion, whose ideas had a bigger impact on the world—Einstein’s or Freud’s? Give reasons to support your position. THINK ABOUT• the state of knowledge before their contributions• the field in which they worked• how life would be different without their contributionsANSWERPossible Responses:Einstein—theory of relativity changed scientific thought, upset absolute laws of science; in contrast, Freud’s field was new, unscientific.Freud—developed new theory of human mind; ushered in era of psychoanalysis; created new understanding of human behavior; Freud’s ideas had wider and more personal influence.End of Section 1
8 A Global Depression Key Idea 2 HOME2A Global DepressionKey IdeaAn economic depression begins in the United States in It spreads throughout the world and lasts for a decade.OverviewAssessment
9 A Global Depression Overview 2 • coalition government HOME2A Global DepressionTERMS & NAMESOverview• coalition government• Weimar Republic• Great Depression• Franklin D. Roosevelt• New DealMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAn economic depression in the United States spread throughout the world and lasted for a decade.Many social and economic programs introduced worldwide to combat the Great Depression are still operating.Assessment
10 HOME2A Global DepressionSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the effects of the Great Depression in the United States.The Great DepressionBusinesses failed.Unemployment rose.Farms were foreclosed.Banks closed.Savings were lost.continued . . .
11 HOME2A Global DepressionSection2Assessment2. The collapse of the American economy had a devastating effect on the world. List one cause for each of the following effects: American market for European goods dropped; unemployment rates soared; European banks and businesses closed. THINK ABOUT• economic conditions in the United States• the interdependence of the economies of the worldANSWERPossible Responses:• High U.S. tariffs• Drop in world trade• Demand for repayment of American loans and withdrawal of American investment moneycontinued . . .
12 HOME2A Global DepressionSection2Assessment3. What actions did the United States, Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries take to try to recover from the Great Depression? Give specific examples for each country. THINK ABOUT• Roosevelt and the New Deal• coalition governments in Britain and France• traditional community cooperative action in ScandinaviaANSWERcontinued . . .
13 HOME2A Global DepressionSection2AssessmentPossible Responses:United States—New Deal supported public works, financial aid to businesses and farms, money for welfare and relief programs; regulated stock market and banksBritain—National Government passed tariffs; increased taxes; regulated currency; decreased interest ratesFrance—Popular Front enacted worker reformsScandinavia—public works projects; raised pensions, unemployment insurance, housing subsidies, welfare benefitsEnd of Section 2
14 Fascism Rises in Europe Key Idea 3 HOME3Fascism Risesin EuropeGRAPHKey IdeaIn response to political turmoil and economic crises, many countries in Europe, including Italy and Germany, turn to Fascist dictators.OverviewAssessment
15 Fascism Rises in Europe Overview 3 • fascism • Benito Mussolini HOME3Fascism Risesin EuropeGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• fascism• Benito Mussolini• Adolf Hitler• Nazism• Mein Kampf• lebensraumMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIn response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy and Germany turned to totalitarian dictators.These dictators changed the course of history, and the world is still recovering from their abuse of power.Assessment
16 Fascism Rises in Europe 3 3 HOME3Fascism Risesin EuropeGRAPHSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Mussolini and Hitler by using the four categories listed below.HitlerMussoliniMethod of taking powerStyle of leadershipHandling of economic crisisGoalsAppointed chancellorAppointed by kingDictatorDictatorRevived economyTook control of economySought to regain lost lands and take over moreWanted Italy to return to its ancient greatnesscontinued . . .
17 Fascism Rises in Europe 3 3 HOME3Fascism Risesin EuropeGRAPHSection3Assessment2. Why did a movement like fascism and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler come to power during a period of crisis? THINK ABOUT• what problems Italy and Germany faced• political traditions in each country• the state of the world at the timeANSWERPossible Response:During periods of crisis, people often turn to doctrines or leaders who promise to take charge and solve the country's problems. These doctrines or leaders often offer simple solutions to complex problems and blame outsiders, or scapegoats, for the problems.continued . . .
18 Fascism Rises in Europe 3 3 HOME3Fascism Risesin EuropeGRAPHSection3Assessment3. Refer to the History Makers features in this section. What biases in the speeches of Mussolini are mentioned? What techniques did he and Hitler use to appear powerful and capable to their listeners?ANSWERPossible Responses:Mussolini talked about Italy’s past glory and often used words like “war” and “power.” He and Hitler appeared powerful by standing high above the crowds, using dramatic body language and forceful voices to stir up patriotic, violent emotions in the crowd.End of Section 3
19 Aggressors on the March Key Idea 4 HOME4Aggressors onthe MarchMAPKey IdeaGermany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries. The League of Nations and the rest of the world do nothing to stop them, and the specter of another great war haunts Europe.OverviewAssessment
20 Aggressors on the March Overview 4 • appeasement • Axis Powers HOME4Aggressors onthe MarchMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• appeasement• Axis Powers• Francisco Franco• isolationism• Third Reich• Munich ConferenceMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAs Germany, Italy, and Japan conquered other countries, the rest of the world did nothing to stop them.Many nations today take a more active and collective role in world affairs, as in the United Nations.Assessment
21 Aggressors on the March 4 4 HOME4Aggressors onthe MarchMAPSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Trace the movement of Japan from democratic reform in the 1920s to military aggression in the 1930s by supplying the events following the dates shown below.192219301937193619311928Signs treaty agreeing to respect China’s bordersGreat Depression puts military in controlAllies with GermanySigns Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing warInvades ManchuriaInvades Chinacontinued . . .
22 Aggressors on the March 4 4 HOME4Aggressors onthe MarchMAPSection4Assessment2. Review Germany’s aggressive actions after Hitler defied the Versailles Treaty by rebuilding Germany’s armed forces. At what point do you think Hitler concluded that he could take any territory without being stopped? Why? THINK ABOUT• Hitler’s goals• responses of the democracies to his statements and actions• the role of the League of NationsANSWERPossible Responses:After Hitler renounced Versailles Treaty—nothing happenedAfter seizing Rhineland—Britain urged appeasementAfter taking Austria—France and Britain ignored pledge to protect AustriaAfter Munich Conference—Britain and France let Germany take Sudetenlandcontinued . . .
23 Aggressors on the March 4 4 HOME4Aggressors onthe MarchMAPSection4Assessment3. After World War I, many Americans became isolationists. Do you recommend that America practice isolationism today? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• America’s role as world leader• the global economy• America’s domestic problems• the economic and political goals of other countriesANSWERPossible Responses:Yes—world leadership costs in money and respect; global economy costs in jobs and social services; cannot solve other countries’ problemsNo—power and prestige as a world leader; need to compete in a global economy; benefits from maintaining orderEnd of Section 4