Presentation on theme: "HITLER & THE RISE OF NAZI GERMANY"— Presentation transcript:
1 HITLER & THE RISE OF NAZI GERMANY Setting the scene…a. November 1923: Adolf Hitler tries to follow Mussolini’s exampleb. The coup failed and Hitler was soon behind bars
2 II. The Weimar Republic a. WW I was ending and the Kaiser abdicates b. Modern leaders signed the armistice and the Treaty of VersaillesC. Weimar Republic: democratic government with a constitution which set up a parliamentary system led by a chancellor
3 d. Struggles of the Republic i. Communists demanded radical changesii. Conservatives attacked the government as too liberal and weakiii. Germans of all classes blamed the Weimar Republic for the hated Versailles treaty and heavy reparations.iv. Germans look for scapegoats and blamed German Jews for economic and political problems
4 e. Inflationi. Germany could not pay the reparations to France so France occupied the coal-rich Ruhr Valleyii. Government printed huge quantities of paper moneyiii. German mark became worthlessiv. Salaries rose by billions of marksv. Prices skyrockedvi. German families savings were wiped out!
5 f. Recovery and collapse i. Western powers bring inflation under controlii. United States, Britain, and France approve a plan to reduce German reparationsiii. France withdraws from the Ruhr under the Dawes Plan.
6 iv. American loans help the German economic recovery. v. The Great Depression hits – Germany turns to Adolf Hitler.
7 III. Adolf Hitler a. Born in Austria and went to Vienna at age 18 b. While living in Vienna, he develops a fanatical anti-Semitism: anti-Jewish feelings and actionsc. Fought for Germany during WW Id. despised the Weimar Republic for being too weak.
8 e. Joined a small right-winged group and became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers or NAZIs.f. Wrote “Mein Kampf” – basic book of Nazi goals and ideologyg. Promised German people to end reparations, create jobs, defy the Versailles Treaty by rearming Germany
9 h. Hitler demanded unquestioning obedience and was known as the Fuhrer.
10 IV. Hitler’s Third Reich a. Hitler is elected chancellor in 1933 under the Weimar constitutionb. First Reich: Holy Roman Empirec. Second Reich: Bismarck’s Empire until 1871d. Third Reich: Hitler’s idea of creating a German Master Race to dominate Europe for 1,000 years.
11 e. Totalitarian Statei. Hitler organized an efficient but brutal system of terror, repression and totalitarian rule.ii. Secret police: gestapo – root out oppositioniii. Germans cheered Hitler’s ability to end unemployment and revive German power.
12 f. Economic Policy i. Combat the Great Depression 1. Public Work Programs2. Program to rearm Germany3. Preserved capitalism and brought big business and labor under government control
13 g. Social Policyi. Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideologyIi. Passionate speeches by the Fuhrer urging young Germans to destroy their enemies without mercy
14 h. Purging German culture i. The Arts1. Nazis wanted to purge or purify German culture2. Denounced modern art3. Condemned jazz4. Glorified old German myths5. Burned books which they disapproved – All Quiet on the Western Front
15 ii. Nazis and the Churches 1. Despised Christianity as “weak and flabby”2. Replaced religion with his racial creed3. Combined all protestant religions into one state church
16 V. The Campaign Against the Jews Begins a Nuremberg Laws – Restrictions on Jewsb. Night of Broken Glass – Kristallnachti. Nazi led mobs attached Jewish communities all over Germany – smashed windows, looted shops, burned synagogues, beat Jewish peopleii. Aftermath – the world reaction to Kristallnacht was negative
17 1. Hitler was unmoved and made Jewish victims pay for the damages 2. Years later Hitler’s campaigns against the Jews intensifiedA. concentration camps – detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the stateB. Hitler was making sinister plans for the “final solution” the extermination of all Jews.