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Political Crisis and Dictatorship -Key Concepts-.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Crisis and Dictatorship -Key Concepts-."— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Crisis and Dictatorship -Key Concepts-

2 I. The Spread of Dictatorship By 1938, only 10 out of 27 European countries remained democratic By 1938, only 10 out of 27 European countries remained democratic For the most part, these were dictatorships in the traditional sense of the word For the most part, these were dictatorships in the traditional sense of the word Three of these dictatorships made the jump into totalitarianism Three of these dictatorships made the jump into totalitarianism

3 II. What is Totalitarianism? A Whole Set of Values A Whole Set of Values Individual ceases to have any role an rights whatsoever Individual ceases to have any role an rights whatsoever Total rejection of liberalism and liberal values Total rejection of liberalism and liberal values By the 1930’s, liberalism seemed spent, a thing of the past By the 1930’s, liberalism seemed spent, a thing of the past

4 III. Features of Modern Totalitarianism Absolute Domination over every area of life Absolute Domination over every area of life The worship and cultivation of violence The worship and cultivation of violence --War is noble --The need for an enemy The centrality of the Party and a Leader The centrality of the Party and a Leader --il Duce and der Fuhrer

5 III. Features of Modern Totalitarianism (cont) A mass movement, but especially appealing to the lower middle class A mass movement, but especially appealing to the lower middle class Heavy reliance on propaganda Heavy reliance on propaganda --leader image based on sex appeal --Truth is what the Party says it is

6 IV. The Pervasiveness of Fascism Presents itself as the only alternative to communism Presents itself as the only alternative to communism Right-wing revolutionary conservatism Right-wing revolutionary conservatism European-wide movement—not restricted to Italy and to Germany European-wide movement—not restricted to Italy and to Germany Different forms of fascism throughout Europe— influence of nationalism Different forms of fascism throughout Europe— influence of nationalism

7 V. General Characteristics of Fascism An ideology, a program of action, and a mood as well An ideology, a program of action, and a mood as well Seen as a way out of disillusionment and uncertainty Seen as a way out of disillusionment and uncertainty The primacy of action The primacy of action Powerful appeal to youth Powerful appeal to youth --Hitler Youth

8 V. General Characteristics of Fascism (cont) Middle and lower- middle class support Middle and lower- middle class support Support from traditional conservative elite of Europe Support from traditional conservative elite of Europe Support from the rural population as well Support from the rural population as well

9 VI. The Ideology of Fascism Action for action’s sake Action for action’s sake --Italian squadristi or “Blackshirts” --German SA or “Brownshirts” The Significance of National Culture The Significance of National Culture --The “Volk” The Superiority of National Culture and Race The Superiority of National Culture and Race

10 VI. The Ideology of Fascism (cont) The Aryan Myth The Aryan Myth Male Leader Worship Male Leader Worship Conspiracy Theory of History Conspiracy Theory of History A Religious- Psychological Phenomenon A Religious- Psychological Phenomenon --Nuremberg Party Rallies

11 Nuremberg Party Rally, 1935

12 Nuremberg Party Rally, 1938

13 VII. The Life of Adolph Hitler His Early Years His Early Years The development of his racial attitudes The development of his racial attitudes His World War I experience His World War I experience After the war, moves to Munich in Bavaria After the war, moves to Munich in Bavaria

14 VII. The Life of Adolph Hitler (cont) The Nazi Party: National Socialist German Worker’s Party The Nazi Party: National Socialist German Worker’s Party The Munich Putsch (1923) The Munich Putsch (1923) Mein Kampf: “My Struggle” Mein Kampf: “My Struggle”

15 VIII. Reasons for Hitler’s Rise to Power The weaknesses of the Weimar Republic The weaknesses of the Weimar Republic Political resistance to the Weimar government Political resistance to the Weimar government Continuing Rise of Nationalism and Hatred for the Treaty of Versailles Continuing Rise of Nationalism and Hatred for the Treaty of Versailles

16 VIII. Hitler’s Rise to Power (cont) The Great Depression of the 1930’s The Great Depression of the 1930’s Increase in Nazi Political Power Increase in Nazi Political Power Fear of Communism Fear of Communism --The Burning of the Reichstag The “Enabling Act” (1933) The “Enabling Act” (1933) Hitler’s own skills and charisma Hitler’s own skills and charisma

17 IX.The Actions of the “Third Reich” The Suspension of Civil Rights The Suspension of Civil Rights Nazi Party Purge (1934) Nazi Party Purge (1934) --Night of the Long Knives (June 30 th ) Establishment of the SS and the Gestapo Establishment of the SS and the Gestapo --Heinrich Himmler Creation of a centralized, unified state Creation of a centralized, unified state

18 SS Troops on Parade in Poland

19 Hitler Reviews SS Troops

20 SS Troops Guard Members of Jewish Resistance in Warsaw

21 IX. “Third Reich” (cont) A Program of Anti- Semitism A Program of Anti- Semitism --Nuremberg Laws of The “Final Solution” Mobilization of a Wartime Economy Mobilization of a Wartime Economy -- “Lebensraum”: “Living Space” --Four-Year Plan (1936)

22 IX. “Third Reich” (cont) Alliance of Nazi Party with Big Business Alliance of Nazi Party with Big Business Elimination of Unemployment Elimination of Unemployment--Autobahn Tremendous and Growing Popularity Tremendous and Growing Popularity -- “Strength through Joy” program -- “People’s Car”: Volkswagen

23 Adolph Hitler and the Volkswagen: “The Strength through Joy” Car (1932 Drawing done in Munich Restaurant and passed on to head of Daimler-Benz)

24 X. Stalinist Russia Joseph Stalin the man Joseph Stalin the man Lenin’s view of Stalin Lenin’s view of Stalin “Socialism in one country” “Socialism in one country” A Strategy for Rapid Industrialization A Strategy for Rapid Industrialization Collectivization of Agriculture Collectivization of Agriculture --The problem of the Kulaks Chaos in the countryside Chaos in the countryside

25 X. Stalinist Russia (cont) Crop Failures in Crop Failures in Collectivization: A Revolution from Above Collectivization: A Revolution from Above Kolkhoz : The Collectivized Farm Kolkhoz : The Collectivized Farm Surplus industrial labor Surplus industrial labor The First Five-Year Plan The First Five-Year Plan Impact of Five-Year Plans Impact of Five-Year Plans Whole new industrial cities sprang up behind the Ural Mountains Whole new industrial cities sprang up behind the Ural Mountains

26 XI. Stalin’s Terror and Political Purges (1934) The purpose of the terror and purges The purpose of the terror and purges “Socialist Realism” in art “Socialist Realism” in art Assassination of Sergei Kirov (1934) Assassination of Sergei Kirov (1934) Moscow Show Trials Moscow Show Trials Purge of the Red Army Purge of the Red Army Atmosphere of Paranoia and Suspicion Atmosphere of Paranoia and Suspicion Impact on Soviet leadership for generations Impact on Soviet leadership for generations

27 XI. Fascist Italy Sense of Betrayal after World War I Sense of Betrayal after World War I Economic Problems and Social Unrest Economic Problems and Social Unrest Governmental Paralysis Governmental Paralysis Mussolini’s Rise to Power Mussolini’s Rise to Power Consolidation of a Dictatorship Consolidation of a Dictatorship “Il Duce” and the Doctrine of the State “Il Duce” and the Doctrine of the State Increasing International Prestige Increasing International Prestige


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