Presentation on theme: "Establishment of Hitler and the Nazi Party Themes: Emergence of Leader: aims, ideology, support Ideology of movement. (52, 117) Role of the leader112-113."— Presentation transcript:
Establishment of Hitler and the Nazi Party Themes: Emergence of Leader: aims, ideology, support Ideology of movement. (52, 117) Role of the leader The nature of support for the movement (farmers, rural 117)
Themes cont. Methods: force or legal Changing the system from ‘within’ 126 – strong economic platform, non anti Semitic 127 Establishment of party system The use of violence to establish single party state (53- 55, 116) Unwilling to share power with others A period needed to consolidate
Establishment of Hitler and the Nazi Party Timeline overview ( )
Ideology of movement. Twenty Five Point Programme of 1920 had clauses that could be classified as racist, socialist, anti-democratic, and nationalist (52) Classify each of the clauses into one of the four categories above
Ideology of movement Nationalist socialism Social Darwinist theories of natural competition applied to human society. Fundamental difference between Communism and Nazism here – the former based on class differences (economic differences) and the other based on racial difference Master Race or Herrenvolk
“Nutrition is not a private matter!” “Your body belongs to the Fuhrer” Hitler Youth Manual: Health through Proper Eating Nazi were advocates of “the 'natural' diet for Germans, free of over-processed, preserved food”
Master Race "(The state) must see to it that only the healthy beget children; that there is only one disgrace: despite one's own sickness and deficiencies, to bring children into the world; and one highest honour : to renounce doing so. And conversely it must be considered reprehensible to withhold healthy children from the nation."
Ideology of movement Pan-Germanism Unification of all German people into one state Anschluss ( ) Sudetenland Memel -Lithuania Danzig and the Polish Corridor
Ideology of movement Lebensraum Germany must expand to take over more territory (living space) to feed population
Lebensraum The term Lebensraum was coined by the German geographer, Friedrich Ratzel ( ). The theory states that the development of all species, including humans, is primarily determined by their adaptation to geographic circumstances. species migration as the crucial factor in social adaptation and cultural change. successfully adapted to one location = natural spread to others. migration is a natural feature of all species, an expression of their need for living space Healthy species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy
To discussion How does this theory fit in with the idea of Social Darwinism? Why was expansion targeted to the East of Germany?
Ideology of movement Authoritarian state Anti-democratic/Fuhrerprinzip Democracy provides for weak government Replace with single party state with an all powerful leader
Methods: Force or Legal Main Questions Did the Nazi Movement attempt to change the system from ‘within or through force? To extent were the Nazis’ successful in the establishment of party system? How did Germany change from a multi-party system to a single party system?
Force: 1923 Beer Hall Putsch Popular Will: Creation of party system and elected
Establishment of party system Read pages Selective evidence that shows organizational strengths and weaknesses of the Nazi Party
Establishment of party system Pages Strong, locally organized party structure Gaue Use of local leaders Nazi Welfare organization Use of the last campaign techniques with simple messages
Changing the system from ‘within’ After 1923 Putch, use of the democratic system to try and achieve power legally Use of alliances with other parties gives access to resources and political legitimacy Nationalist alliance of 1929 gains access to Hugenberg’s media empire
Changing the system from ‘within’ Achieved electoral success- 37% second highest vote total of any party in the WR Had electoral success because of clear economic plan that appealed to German voters (126) During the elections, extreme philosophies were moderate – i.e. did not emphasis their anti Semitic views (127) Appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg with the urging of the Junkers and key industrialists (142)
Changing the system from ‘within’ Debate: Proportional representation or Hindenburg Talking Point 1 on Page144 Legal or illegal? Read page 144 and analyze the two cartoon
Methods: force or legal The use of violence to establish single party state (53- 55, 116)
Methods: force or legal Hitler and the Nazi Party were not opposed to the use of violence as a means of achieving political goals. The SA (Brown shirts) had a huge membership of around 400,000 in 1933 (4x times larger than the German army) while the NSDAP had a total membership of 800,000 (120, ) Use of intimidation against other political parties in an attempt to influence elections (144)
Methods: force or legal Propaganda of the deed” = communist threat and military order (116)
Historical Interpretations Pages Match differing historical interpretations with quotes. Complete the source activity on page 156 Using the quotes on page , classify each statement into a historical interpretation category
Role of the Leader
Role of the leader An inspiring leader, successful orator ( ) Party adopts Fuhrerprinzip -gives Hitler massive power to control party (113) Ideological/Political flexibility Central rallying figure of the Nazi Party – the main symbol Extent of personal appeal (during elections) disputed (113)
Nature of Support
Nature of support Support from a range of socio-economic groups e.g. unemployed, manual labourers, lower-middle class business owners, professionals large industrialists.
Nature of support The Nazi Party was the largest political organisation in Germany July % of the vote Largest party membership
Nature of support Protestant and Northern (121) Young but equal gender appeal (120) Clear economic plan and effective propaganda appealed to those looking for a change in government Not anti-Semitic
Case Study: Pastor Martin Niemoeller Order and stability Nationalism Fear of Communism Protestant Late 30’s Recent rural to urban migrant Lived in an affluent suburb of Berlin
Assignment Historical debate: Complete the chart and questions on page 122 Analyze the posters on pages and examine the graph on page 128– Write a summary of the target group(s) of the Nazis