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The Road to War Political Cartoons. The Flower (1919)

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to War Political Cartoons. The Flower (1919)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to War Political Cartoons

2 The Flower (1919)

3 This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

4 What is the message of this cartoon?

5 To do this question, you need first to borrow two concepts from English: Denotation (what you see) Connotation (how it affects its audience) This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

6 The League of Nations is an angel. The angel of peace. Denotation Connotation Meaning The League is a divine bringer of peace to the world. This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

7 The League of Nations is a large flower. Peace is a very beautiful thing. Denotation Connotation Meaning The League is a beautiful thing. This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

8 The flower is growing in a graveyard. The League is one result of the deaths of the First World War. Denotation Connotation Meaning The soldiers did not die in vain – out of the killing of the war has come a way to keep the peace in the future. This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

9 Finally, always remember to look at: Origin (who drew it) Date (when it was published) This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November 1919.

10 This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November David Low, in the Star. A British newspaper. David Low was a strong supporter of the League of Nations Origin Details Significance This cartoon illustrates the hope that British people (especially David Low) placed in the League to keep the peace.

11 This cartoon by the British artist David Low appeared in the Star newspaper on 11 November Exactly a year after the Armistice – the first ‘Remembrance Day’. Date Details Significance This was part of the British public’s psychologically coming to terms with the First World War – remembering the slaughter, but also hoping it would be ‘the war to end all wars’.

12 The Gap in the Bridge (Br 1919)

13 Japanese Invasion of Manchuria (1931)

14 A British cartoon of 1933 shows Japan trampling all over the League, whilst Britain powders her nose.

15 Moral Persuasion (1936) The rabbit is saying: "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye."

16 A rabbit, representing the League of Nations. Rabbits are weak, and known for running away and hiding. Denotation Connotation Meaning The League is weak. This cartoon – entitled ‘Moral Persuasion’ appeared in the British satirical magazine Punch in July The rabbit says: "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye."

17 A snake, representing ‘international strife’ (i.e. war). Snakes are powerful and evil, and they eat rabbits. Denotation Connotation Meaning The League is too weak to expect it to be able to stop war. This cartoon – entitled ‘Moral Persuasion’ appeared in the British satirical magazine Punch in July The rabbit says: "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye."

18 This cartoon – entitled ‘Moral Persuasion’ appeared in the British satirical magazine Punch in July The rabbit says: "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye." The rabbit (knowing it has no weapons) is preparing to try to hypnotise the snake. IDIOCY! Snakes hypnotise their prey, and rabbits ‘freeze’ with fear – the rabbit is going to be killed. Denotation Connotation Meaning ‘Moral persuasion’ will never prevent war, and it will be the League which is destroyed.

19 This cartoon – entitled ‘Moral Persuasion’ appeared in the British satirical magazine Punch in July The rabbit says: "My offensive equipment being practically nil, it remains for me to fascinate him with the power of my eye." July Poland, Russia and Czechoslovakia were at war and the League could not stop it. Date Details Significance This showed the British public’s disappointment that the League seemed unable to stop war.

20 Italy Invades Abyssinia (1935) A British cartoon of 1935 shows international politics like a stage musical. Britain and France sing: ‘We don’t want you to fight, but by jingo if you do, We will probably issue a joint memorandum Suggesting a mild disapproval of you.’

21 Appeasement England footballers give the Nazi salute before a match in Germany in a picture from German photograph archives.

22 Re-Militarize the Rhineland

23 This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.

24 What is the message of this cartoon?

25 To do this question, you need first to borrow two concepts from English: Denotation (what you see) Connotation (how it affects its audience) Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’. This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July 1936.

26 Hitler strides across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ thumbing his nose. Thumbing one’s nose is a sign of contempt. Denotation Connotation Meaning Hitler was increasing his power with utter contempt for the other countries of the world. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’. This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July 1936.

27 Hitler is goose- stepping. German militarism – the goose-step was the formal march of the German army. Denotation Connotation Meaning Hitler is increasing his power by force and threat of military force. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’. This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July 1936.

28 Hitler is goose-stepping over ‘the spineless leaders of democracy’ The leaders of the western democracies are just giving way to Hitler. Denotation Connotation Meaning Anger at appeasement and the need to stand up to Hitler – who intended to keep on expanding – are a regular message of Low’s cartoons. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.

29 This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July The first three steps are taken towards the ultimate goal: ‘Boss of the Universe’. ‘Taking steps’ implies conscious decisions. Low does not know what Hitler will do next. Denotation Connotation Meaning Low does not know what Hitler will do next, but he is sure that Hitler intends to continue until he rules the world. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.

30 Finally, always remember to look at: Origin (who drew it) Date (when it was published) Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’. This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July 1936.

31 The British cartoonist David Low, in a British newspaper. Low hated Hitler and appeasement. Date Details Significance Low is reflecting the anti- appeasement standpoint that Hitler was just humiliating the appeasers. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.

32 This cartoon by the British cartoonist David Low appeared in the Evening Standard newspaper in July July In March 1936, German troops had re-occupied the Rhineland. Origin Details Significance Low is warning that Hitler needed to be confronted, or he would continue trying to take over more countries. Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless leaders of democracy’ towards his goal: ’Boss of the Universe’. The first 3 steps are labelled ‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.

33 Anschluss March 1938

34 Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’.

35 Hitler as a poacher, stealing a deer labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’. Poaching has connotations of crime and cruelty – Hitler is shown as a ‘bad man’. Denotation Connotation Meaning Hitler is stealing Austria’s integrity (= independence/freedom). Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’.

36 A sign stating: ‘Strictly preserved’. Hitler is committing an illegal act. Denotation Connotation Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’. Meaning Anschluss was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles, but Hitler was breaking the terms of the Treaty.

37 Hitler carries a gun. The gun represents German militarism, violence and expansionism. Denotation Connotation Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’. Meaning Hitler is stealing Austria’s integrity by force

38 The gamekeeper (who looks like Mussolini) lounges against the rock, waving Hitler on. It is a lazy, ‘do-nothing’ pose, and the gesture is one of encouragement. Denotation Connotation Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’. Meaning Mussolini (who stopped Hitler in 1934) is allowing – even encouraging – Hitler.

39 Austria is represented as a deer. Deer as beautiful, but vulnerable. (Although Austria was in fact a authoritarian, right-wing state.) Denotation Connotation The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’. Meaning Note how cartoonist misrepresents Austria (as delicate and vulnerable) in order to make Hitler look worse – i.e. this is a biased source.

40 Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February The British cartoonist Bernard Partridge. Partridge, as many British people, was alarmed by Hitler’s expansionism. Origin Details Significance Partridge is warning people of Hitler’s violent intentions; this is an anti-appeasement cartoon saying ‘why isn’t someone stopping him?’ The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’.

41 Drawn by the British cartoonist Bernard Partridge for the satirical magazine Punch in February February A month before Anschluss, as the crisis was developing. Date Details Significance Partridge is predicting (and condemning) the Anschluss if nothing is done to stop Hitler. The deer is labelled ‘Austrian Integrity’ and the sign says ‘Strictly Preserved’.

42 At the back, Britain says to France, who is next-to-last: ‘Why should we take a stand about someone pushing someone else when it’s all so far away?’

43 Czechoslovakia/ Munich Conference

44 Munich Agreement 9/29/38 Chamberlain

45 Deutschland Uber Alles (‘Germany over all’). 'Europe can look forward to a Christmas of peace'

46 March 15, 1939

47 Nazi-Soviet Pact


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