Presentation on theme: "Rise to Power 1925-1933 Nazi Party gained followers due to Depression Major Rivals were: KPD Communists SPD Social Democrats Christian Center Party Youth."— Presentation transcript:
Rise to Power 1925-1933 Nazi Party gained followers due to Depression Major Rivals were: KPD Communists SPD Social Democrats Christian Center Party Youth attracted to party
Political Turmoil Hindenburg President Political turmoil sees a succession of Chancellors Conservatives believe that they can control Hitler and use Nazi’s against Communists Hindenburg refuses to make Hitler Chancellor
The End of the Republic Weimar becomes desperate Chancellor Brüning has Hindenburg envoke Article 48 Brüning falls followed by von Papen and Schleicher Hindenburg has little choice and Makes Hitler Chancellor in 1933 Papen becomes Vice Chancellor
Franz von Papen, former German Chancellor suggested merging the National People’s Party with the Nazis. Von Papen assured Hindenburg he could control Hitler and the Nazis. But he underestimated Hitler and Hitler outmaneuvered the Nationalists. Von Papen delivered his speech on Jun. 17, 1934, at the University of Marburg. In his speech he criticized Nazi policies, and one-party domination. Von Papen called for greater political freedom, restoration of just legal system and return to principles based on Christian conservatism.
Reichstag Fire Feb. 28, 1933 Hitler is able to convince Hindenburg to use Act 48 again Communists and Social Democratic parties made illegal Enabling Act: Gave Cabinet Law Making powers and emergency Rule by Decree
Gleichschaltung: The Coordination of Party and State, 1933-34 Gleichschaltung was the official policy name – all sectors of the state and society were now under Nazi control and took only six months to achieve -Increase executive power and eliminate all sources of opposition – one-party regime – Hitler becomes Chancellor, the Reichstag Fire Decree, (Feb. 27, 1933) gave the Nazis power to round up opponents such as Communists and Social Democrats. The Decree created a police state and enabled the Nazis to curtail constitutional rights.
–State bureaucracy and federal structure came under central authority - Enabling Act (Mar 24, 1933, a.k.a. Law for the Removal of the Distress of People and Reich) altered the Weimar Constitution, legalized National Socialist revolution, and provided the foundation for establishment of totalitarian regime. Hitler didn’t need the Reichstag’s consent to issue laws. Parliamentary democracy was gone. –Neutralize the power of the SA and the army which weren’t under Hitler’s control - under the authority of an emergency decree and the guise of restoring order, Reich police assumed control. SA and SS units were special police auxiliaries to “restore” order.
The judicial system was so drastically changed that it became a system that interpreted laws only according to the National Socialist principles. –Undesirable judges were eliminated or demoted to positions of non-leadership by the use of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (April 7, 1933) –Legalized purging of members of the government bureaucracy – those who were democratic or leftist sentiments or of non- Aryan descent.
–Judges were spied on and their political opinions were supervised just like the average citizen. Judges were attacked openly in the press and no corrections of trial reports were reported to correct untrue statements. –German Civil Service Code of Jan. 26, 1937 gave authorization to retire judges who were “no longer prepared to intercede at all times for the National Socialist State.” Hitler was granted the right by the Reichstag to dismiss judges if Hitler found it necessary.
The Blood Purge ● Jun. 30, 1934, was the Night of the Long Knives-the assassination of SA leadership by Himmler’s SS. ● One of the victims was Gen. Kurt von Schleicher, last chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ● Hitler re-established control over the NSDAP & gained the allegiance of the Army
The Hitler State, 1934-38 ● Omnipotent Führer—President Hindenburg died Aug. 2, 1934. ● His powers as president were transferred to Hitler. Hitler now had the powers of both president (unconstitutionally) and chancellor. ● Hitler‘s merging of the powers was a flagrant disregard for the Weimar Constitution and constitutional authority.
● Hitler designated himself Führer, giving himself the powers to reshape the state and become the “supreme arbiter” to resolve rivalries between party officials, conflicts between state and Party, fights between the army and the SA, thereby strengthening his powers even more. ● With such a concentration of power, Hitler became omnipotent (virtually unlimited authority).
Nazi Government ● Führer Principle—emphasized discipline and chain of command, all rising to Hitler, who was the top of the chain. ● Nazi Leadership in Chaos—Hitler dominated all decision-making. Those below him only acted out his commands. The difficulty lay in the fact that Hitler purposely created overlapping authority; dual appointments and conflicting agencies. This disorganization only strengthened Hitler’s powers. Who was to resolve the conflict, but Hitler himself?
The Party and State Relationship The relationship between state bureaucracy and Party organizations were never fully defined. Permanent Revolution: as long as there was not total unity among the German people, there would be revolution & chaos.
German Kultur at Risk Hitler appointed Joseph Goebbels minister for public enlightenment and propaganda— complete control over communications media, film industry, theater and the arts. The Party took over education and all youth groups Hitler Youth Created Education to reflect Physical Training and Aryanization
Last Hope Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis Up until 1937, Hitler had to compromise to have the support of the army in establishing the Nazi state. Now Hitler needed to gain control of the Army. When Hitler proposed his territorial expansion, Field Marshal von Blomberg and Colonel von Fritsch, top military leaders, voiced opposition. Heinrich Himmler produced damaging personal information about each of the men, and the men were forced to resign in Feb. 1938. Hitler made himself commander in chief of the armed forces.
Economic Recovery Hjalmar Schacht Unemployment reduced Autobahn completed Industry rebuilt Farmers: Blood and Soil Workers: Strength Through Joy