Presentation on theme: "Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler European DictatorsMussolini, Stalin, and Hitler
2 Italy and MussoliniAfter WWI Italy’s leadership was unstable and indecisiveMussolini, once a strong promoter of socialism, helped create a new political group called the National Fascist PartyWanted to build an Italian empire that would be more glorious than the Roman EmpireHe believed fascism was necessary to make Italy strongFascism places the good of the nation above all else, including individual rights; an all-powerful dictator makes all major decisions
3 Mussolini in PowerMussolini’s fascist party got a lot of support, but he wanted total controlHe organized a march on Rome to force the king of Italy to give him power, and the king put Mussolini in chargeMussolini use propaganda to promote his ideas and convince the people that Italy was the greatest country on EarthIntroduced new holidays and festivals to remind people if their Roman heritage
4 EthiopiaMussolini wanted to display Italy’s military strength and expand his empireHe chose to invade Ethiopia for two reasonsEthiopia was an easy targetIt was the territory that had defeated the Italian armies during the Age of ImperialismThe League of Nations refused to stop Mussolini from conquering Ethiopia because they were afraid it would lead to another world war
6 After LeninLenin did not choose a successor to his position, so when he died there was a struggle for powerStalin eventually won the battle for power and took over as leader of the Soviet UnionUnlike Lenin, Stalin did not follow Karl Marx’s communist theory to leadInstead of gradually reducing government power, Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state
7 The Five-Year PlansStalin wanted to improve the economy and implemented five-year production goals for all factories and minesThe plans increased production greatly, but they forced the workers to meet increasingly high demands
8 CollectivizationStalin took away all lands from peasant farmers created large, mechanized farms to increase productionWhen the peasants protested, he had them killed or sent to Siberia; millions of resisters in the Ukraine starved to death when Stalin refused to send them food during a famine
9 The PurgesStalin constantly feared that people were plotting against himHe had political opponents arrested or killed, and then he purged thousands of people in his own governmentStalin ordered secret police to eliminate Russian citizens who they thought might be anti-communistPeople were very afraid of appearing anti-communist, so they did everything they could to show their faith in the Soviet Union
11 How did Hitler Turn the Chancellorship into a Dictatorship?
12 Hitler became Chancellor January 1933 The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis because they promised to rebuild GermanyIn 1933 advisors convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become ChancellorHitler becameChancellorJanuary 1933
14 The Reichstag Fire February 1933 The Reichstag, the building where the German government met, burned downA communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility after having “a little chat” with Nazi officialsChancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorismHe was able to have the Communists banned from the ReichstagFebruary 1933
15 The Enabling ActWith the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass:HITLER CANRULE ALONEFOR FOURYEARS WITHOUTHAVIINGTOCONSULT THEREICHSTAGMarch 1933
16 The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to make his own laws, so he banned all other political parties! connumistsSocial Deomocratsall other partiesLabor party
17 Political prisonerswere put inconcentration campsrun by the S.S.
18 The Night of the Long Knives Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party.The head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders who have the power to overthrow meI’ve been worried about him for a while, so this is a good excuse to get rid of himJune 1934
19 The Night of the Long Knives Hitler had to get rid of the head of the S.A. He was too much of a threatOn the night of June , Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including their leaderThe army was pleased and Hitler gained their support
20 The death of President Hindenburg A final note PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S ALLOWED HITER TO COMBINETHE ROLE OF CHANCELLORAND PRESIDENT. HE CALLEDHIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’.August 1934
21 Oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.
25 Germany 1933 By January 1933, unemployment had reached 6,000,000. No one would loan Germany money to run the countryThe Weimar Government couldn’t do anything to help the unemployedHitler was elected on a promise to give the German people ‘Bread & Jobs’
28 RAD – The National Labor Service Gave men jobs in public work schemesMen in RAD had to wear a uniform & live in campsThey were given free meals and pocket moneyThey built drainage ditches, schools, a new network of motorways and planted new forests
29 To improve the living conditions of the German people Kick start the Cycle of ProsperityWhat was the goal of Hitler’s Public Works Program?To build impressive buildings so that the German people would feel proudTo improve the public transport network for industrial & military use
30 Autarky – National Self Sufficiency Hitler wanted to make Germany a strong independent country that was sufficient in food and materialsGermany had lost WWI because it had run out of food and war materialsGerman scientists developed all sorts of artificial substitutes such as gas from coal and coffee from acornsThese new substitutes were made in Germany and gave the unemployed jobs in new industriesHitler also encouraged the growth of the car industry
31 The Car IndustryDesigned by Porsche and nicked named ‘The Peoples Car’, known today as the ……?
32 Produced low cost cars which helped to keep the German people happy Created Jobs in other industries because of the need for standardized parts.Produced low cost cars which helped to keep the German people happySteelCar IndustryGlassGood Revision for the Boom in the USARubberCar Production could easily be switched to the production of military vehiclesLeatherCycle of Prosperity
33 What Other Things Did Hitler Do to Reduce Unemployment? By 1934 all Jews were fired from civil service jobs which were then given to German workers.Unemployed Jews were not registered.Women lost their jobs which were given to men.People who refused jobs offered by the labor service were arrested and put into concentration camps.