Presentation on theme: "European Dictators Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler."— Presentation transcript:
European Dictators Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler
Italy and Mussolini After WWI Italy’s leadership was unstable and indecisive Mussolini, once a strong promoter of socialism, helped create a new political group called the National Fascist Party Wanted to build an Italian empire that would be more glorious than the Roman Empire He believed fascism was necessary to make Italy strong Fascism places the good of the nation above all else, including individual rights; an all- powerful dictator makes all major decisions
Mussolini in Power Mussolini’s fascist party got a lot of support, but he wanted total control He organized a march on Rome to force the king of Italy to give him power, and the king put Mussolini in charge Mussolini use propaganda to promote his ideas and convince the people that Italy was the greatest country on Earth Introduced new holidays and festivals to remind people if their Roman heritage
Ethiopia Mussolini wanted to display Italy’s military strength and expand his empire He chose to invade Ethiopia for two reasons Ethiopia was an easy target It was the territory that had defeated the Italian armies during the Age of Imperialism The League of Nations refused to stop Mussolini from conquering Ethiopia because they were afraid it would lead to another world war
Stalin and the Soviet Union
After Lenin Lenin did not choose a successor to his position, so when he died there was a struggle for power Stalin eventually won the battle for power and took over as leader of the Soviet Union Unlike Lenin, Stalin did not follow Karl Marx’s communist theory to lead Instead of gradually reducing government power, Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state
The Five-Year Plans Stalin wanted to improve the economy and implemented five-year production goals for all factories and mines The plans increased production greatly, but they forced the workers to meet increasingly high demands
Collectivization Stalin took away all lands from peasant farmers created large, mechanized farms to increase production When the peasants protested, he had them killed or sent to Siberia; millions of resisters in the Ukraine starved to death when Stalin refused to send them food during a famine
The Purges Stalin constantly feared that people were plotting against him He had political opponents arrested or killed, and then he purged thousands of people in his own government Stalin ordered secret police to eliminate Russian citizens who they thought might be anti- communist People were very afraid of appearing anti-communist, so they did everything they could to show their faith in the Soviet Union
Hitler and Nazi Germany
How did Hitler Turn the Chancellorship into a Dictatorship?
January 1933 The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis because they promised to rebuild Germany In 1933 advisors convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor
The Reichstag, the building where the German government met, burned down A communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility after having “a little chat” with Nazi officials Chancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorism He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag
March 1933 HITLER CAN RULE ALONE FOR FOUR YEARS WITHOUT HAVIINGTO CONSULT THE REICHSTAG With the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass:
The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to make his own laws, so he banned all other political parties!
June 1934 Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. The head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders who have the power to overthrow me I’ve been worried about him for a while, so this is a good excuse to get rid of him
The Night of the Long Knives Hitler had to get rid of the head of the S.A. He was too much of a threat On the night of June , Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including their leader The army was pleased and Hitler gained their support
August 1934 A final note PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S ALLOWED HITER TO COMBINE THE ROLE OF CHANCELLOR AND PRESIDENT. HE CALLED HIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’.
Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.
HITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE THE ENABLING ACT THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES DEATH OF PRESIDENT HINDENBURG OATH OF LOYALTY TO HITLER
Putting Germany Back to Work
Germany 1933 By January 1933, unemployment had reached 6,000,000. No one would loan Germany money to run the country The Weimar Government couldn’t do anything to help the unemployed Hitler was elected on a promise to give the German people ‘Bread & Jobs’
Impact of Hitler’s Policies on Unemployment
How Did Hitler Put Germany Back to Work?
RAD – The National Labor Service Gave men jobs in public work schemes Men in RAD had to wear a uniform & live in camps They were given free meals and pocket money They built drainage ditches, schools, a new network of motorways and planted new forests
What was the goal of Hitler’s Public Works Program? Kick start the Cycle of Prosperity To improve the public transport network for industrial & military use To improve the living conditions of the German people To build impressive buildings so that the German people would feel proud
Autarky – National Self Sufficiency Hitler wanted to make Germany a strong independent country that was sufficient in food and materials Germany had lost WWI because it had run out of food and war materials German scientists developed all sorts of artificial substitutes such as gas from coal and coffee from acorns These new substitutes were made in Germany and gave the unemployed jobs in new industries Hitler also encouraged the growth of the car industry
The Car Industry Designed by Porsche and nicked named ‘The Peoples Car’, known today as the ……?
Car Industry Created Jobs in other industries because of the need for standardized parts. Car Production could easily be switched to the production of military vehicles Produced low cost cars which helped to keep the German people happy Steel Glass Rubber Leather Cycle of Prosperity
What Other Things Did Hitler Do to Reduce Unemployment? By 1934 all Jews were fired from civil service jobs which were then given to German workers. Unemployed Jews were not registered. Women lost their jobs which were given to men. People who refused jobs offered by the labor service were arrested and put into concentration camps.