2Hitler,leader of Nazi Germany Stalin, leader of communist USSRDarkness, death and destruction.Sarcastic greetings, they don’t like each other but pretend to be polite.Dead body torepresent PolandRendevousMeeting placeIn August 1939 the world was shocked when Nazi Germany signed a non-aggression pact with their avowed enemy, communist Russia. They were declared enemies but reached an agreement not to fight each other, but also to divide Poland between them.
3Smiles, arms round each other, flowers, every thing is rosy. Stalin, leader of USSRHitler, leader of Nazi GermanyOil – Hitler’s main aim? fieldsGuns hidden behind backs, don’t trust each otherShared border after Poland divided between themLegs tied together, represents the Nazi-Soviet PactCaption suggests one of them is misleading the other.Cartoonists suggests that the Nazi-Soviet Pact is temporary- but who is tricking who? Has Hitler avoided a war on two fronts?
4Hitler, dressed as Santa. Children representing former friends of Britain and France being bundled into the sackSuggest the order in which these countries will be taken overGermany over everythingThe cartoonist suggests that Hitler is easily picking off countries one by one. They are shown as small innocent victims. No-one is standing up to Hitler and Britain and France are doing nothing to protect their former friends. It suggests that Hitler is going to take over all of Europe
5The caption echoes British complacency suggesting it is not their problem Austria will be the first victim followed by CzechoslovakiaGerman military powerBritain is the last one in line, if they fall, the British Empire represented by the eggs in the basket will be destroyed.The hand of Hitler applying pressure on Austria.The cartoonist is suggesting that once Austria falls victim to Hitler’s pressure then the rest will fall like dominoes. The cartoonist also warns Britain and France about their reluctance to intervene suggesting terrible consequences if they don’t. Six months later Chamberlain commented, “How horrible, fantastic, incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.”
6Signpost suggesting choice of directions Daladier (France) WESTERNEUROPEUSSRHitler in the Nazi war machineNeville Chamberlain(Britain)Weapons suggesting ready for warThis Russian cartoon after the Munich Agreement in September 1938 suggest that Britain and France were diverting Hitler towards Eastern Europe to protect themselves from the Nazi war machine. It implies Britain and France hoped to benefit from a war between the USSR and Nazi Germany.
7John Bull representing the British public Neville Chamberlain on his return from the Munich ConferenceTrenches which had been dug in case of the outbreak of war.Mediator, or negotiator, suggesting Chamberlain had skillfully used his diplomatic skills to avoid war.Gas mask, another precaution taken in the event of warSuggest that Chamberlain has tirelessly worked for peaceThe cartoonists suggests that the country should be grateful for the personal efforts of Chamberlain who has avoided a war over the Sudetenland, appeasement is seen as a triumph.
8Nazi flags showing support for Hiler in the Rhineland Olive branch representing a peace offeringWeapons showing Germany has re-armed.Goose step,a style of marching by the German army.Peace Treaty that has been ripped up and ignored.Claims to have made a mistake – contradicted by mapThe cartoonist suggests Germany cannot be trusted, they offer peace but carry a lot of weapons, they ignore peace treaties and you cannot trust their wordsIt implies Hitler is not reasonable and is preparing for war.
9Adolf Hitler speaking about the re-militarisation of the Rhineland “The forty-eight hours after the march into the Rhineland were the most nerve-racking of my life. If the French had then marched into the Rhineland we would have had to withdraw in disgrace, for the military resources at our disposal would have been inadequate for even modest resistance.”
10A conversation between Rauschning and Hitler in 1934 A conversation between Rauschning and Hitler in the two men spent a lot of time together between 1932 and 1934.Rauschning; “Do you seriously intend to fight the west?”Hitler; “What else do you think we are arming for? We must proceed step by step, so that no-one will interfere with our advance. How do we do this I don’t know yet. But that it will be done is guaranteed by Britain’s lack of firmness and France’s internal disunity.”
11Chamberlain’s radio broadcast before the Munich Conference in September 1938 “How horrible, fantastic, incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a far away country between people of whom we know nothing.”
12Winston Churchill speaking in Parliament in the debate on the Munich Agreement in October 1938. “I will begin by saying the most unpopular and most unwelcome thing: we havesuffered a total and unmitigated defeat. I think that, in the future, Czechoslovakiacannot remain independent. You will see that shortly, Czechoslovakia will be takenover by Germany.”
13Article from the Times newspaper on Chamberlain after the Munich Agreement “Applause for Mr. Chamberlain. No conqueror returning from a victory on the battlefield had come decorated with nobler laurels.”
14A Soviet historian, A.O. Chubaryan, writing about the Munich Agreement, in a book Anti-Soviet Conspiracy in 1969“The governments of Great Britain and France wanted to direct German aggression towards the east, to satisfy Hitler’s claims at the expense of the East European countries. They feared the increase of Germany’s strength in Europe, but they hoped to appease Hitler by giving him some Czech territory, and counted on involving Germany and Russia in conflict, thus weakening them both.”
15“The Germans are, after all, only going into their own back garden.” A comment made by Lord Lothian in 1936 about the remilitarisation the Rhineland. He was a senior adviser to the British government.“The Germans are, after all, only going into their own back garden.”
16From Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler in 1924. “We demand equality of rights for the German people in its dealings with other nations. We demand the abolition of the Treaty of Versailles”
17An extract from the Nazi-Soviet Pact, published in August 1939. “The governments of Germany and the USSR, aiming to strengthen the peacebetween them, have agreed that they will not attack each other, either alone or withother countries.”