Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Hitler’s Germany In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany, and had almost complete control of Germany—only the aged President Hindenburg could stop.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Hitler’s Germany In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany, and had almost complete control of Germany—only the aged President Hindenburg could stop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hitler’s Germany In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany, and had almost complete control of Germany—only the aged President Hindenburg could stop him. In July of 1934, Hindenburg died and Hitler took over and combined the offices of Chancellor and President. He was then to be known as Fuhrer (leader). On August 2, the German army swore allegience to Hitler as Fuhrer, rather than to Germany. He now had complete control.

2 Unemployment in Millions During the 1930s high employment was an important reason why the Nazis came to power Hitler promised ‘bread and work’ for the German people Hitler was far more successful than the British government in reducing unemployment during the same period? Why? The Economy Under the Nazis

3 Hitler was able to lower employment by introducing 4 strategies: 1.Reparations 2.Government Spending 3.Wage and Price control 4.Rearmament

4 Reparations Stopped paying reparations once president Money that had been going to France and Belgium could now be invested in German economy to create more jobs

5 Government Spending Hitler created new jobs through government spending on construction –Network of motorways (autobahns) This network not only created jobs, but created a more efficient Germany; industry goods could be shipped faster Also increased the speed at which troops could cross the country

6 –Huge public buildings Olympic games were held in Berlin in 1936 in a newly built Olympic Stadium Created jobs, but also impressed people (a visible sign that Hitler was making Germany great again) –Reich Labour Service Provided manpower for jobs such as building the autobahns, draining marshes for farmland, building sea walls to protect coastal areas from flooding –Investments in Car Industry Volkswagen is produced: the people’s car By cutting imports of foreign cars, jobs were created Car factories were also useful because they could be easily converted for military needs

7 Wage and Price Control Destroyed trade unions, therefore keeping wages low This was a reward for industries who supported Hitler—they made big profits Industrialists would help Hitler stay in power

8 Rearmament Before 1936, Hitler concentrated on providing the ‘bread and work’ he had promised From 1936 onwards, he changed the aims of the economy— rearmament More money was spent on weapons construction and more men were recruited into the army When Hitler came to power the army was limited to soldiers (Versailles Treaty) 1938 risen to men Expenditure on the armed forces (figures in millions of marks)

9 Schacht—Minister of Economics 1936—Hjalamat Schacht made Economics Minister—he was not a Nazi He had been part of the Weimer Germany and played important roles in the Dawes and Young plans Made trade deals with less developed countries for raw materials Focus on ore and iron for war materials

10 Propaganda and Censorship: Strategies Hitler used to gain power Hitler used words—simple slogans—to get his message across Hugenberg, a owner of many newspapers, supported Hitler after 1929 and spread Hitler’s message Hitler also benefited form the invention of the microphone and loudspeaker Hitler was the first German politician to use the aircraft to travel during elections

11 Once In Power Appointed Goebbels as Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda—controlling press, radio, publishing, films, and the arts No book could be published without the permission of Goebbels Books were ordered to be burned which disagreed with Nazi views Newspapers (who were not shut down) got new from the Nazi news agency (DNB) 1939—Nazis owned 67% of newspapers

12 The Radio Gave Hitler access into German homes—those of the ordinary citizen 1939—70% of Germans owned a radio—highest percentage in the world at the time Radios designed for short range, therefore could not pick up foreign stations, only Nazi views People who did listen to foreign radio could be executed A Volksempfänger VE 301 GW (Nazi people's radio)

13 Public Image Goebbels organized huge marches and rallies at which the SA and Hitler could show off—people would believe that Hitler was making Germany great if they could see it Every year there was a rally at Nuremberg Biggest spectacle was the Berlin Olympics of 1936 New stadium built with film cameras to record events and photo-electric timing instead of stop watches Germany was presented as the most advanced nation Germany also won more medals than any other country, ‘proving’ the superiority of the German race

14 Art Before the Nazis –Modern art becomes popular –Camera invented –Art was not mimicking, it was composing –Artists did not just copy nature, they had to take the images around them they see and put them in a totally different way giving people a new experience

15 Art after the Nazis Since many found modern art difficult to understand (quite different from realism), many hated it—the Nazis exploited this Called modern art ‘degenerated art’ (meaning sick and twisted) Blamed it on Jews and other races The art of Germany was realism—the purpose though was propaganda

16 The Simple Message Nazis had a simple message —hard work was shown as heroic Peasant life was glorified Glorified perfect bodies—the Aryan body Many artists were arrested and others left Germany 1937 a ‘degenerate’ art exhibition was held in Munich, along side an exhibition of German art Two million people visited the modern art exhibit (three times more than the German exhibit) to laugh at the ‘degenerate art’. "Blut und Boden" (Blood and Soil) by Erich Erler (1942) “Water Sports” Albert Janesch (1936)

17 How did Hitler get the German people to obey him? Police State –If people did not respond to the choose to accept Nazi ideas, then they must be forced to accept –The police had the power to do as they wished –German citizens had few rights –Hitler developed a number of agencies to enforce terror

18 The SA and the SS SA (Strum Abteilung) –Formed in 1921 by Hitler to attract more followers –Ex-soldiers, unemployed, men who felt betrayed by the Weimar government; disrupted meetings of Hitler’s opposition –known as ‘brownshirts, hence the brown uniform; by 1934 there were over 2 million –Expected Hitler to take wealth from the rich, –The SA leader believed that they should take over the army and that the SA focus should be a National Socialist Germany SS (Schutzstaffel) –Formed in 1925 as Hitler’s personal bodyguard –Technically part of the SA, however leader, Heinrich Himmler wanted them to be a separate organization –In 1934 Himmler told Hitler that the SA planned to overthrow him (this is debatable) –Hitler had the leaders arrested and executed –The SS then controlled the Nazi police and were completely loyal to Hitler –They were supposed to be perfect examples of Aryan men

19 Divisions of the SS The SD (Sicherheitdienst) –Responsible for state security –Search out and deal with enemies of the Nazis The Waffen SS –Units who fought with the army The Death’s Head Units –Controlled concentration camps (originally controlled by the SA)

20 The Gestapo Geheime Staatspolizei—the secret police first set up in given power in the whole of Germany Like SD, searche dout enemies of Nazis Could arrest anyone and send them to concentration camps without trial Informers were used to uncover any opposition orginizations 1939— Germans imprisoned without trial 1936—Himmler’s deputy, Richard Heydrich becomes head of Gestapo—in effect under SS control

21 The Courts SD and Gestapo could put people in concentration camps without trial so courts could not protect Germans from police—this was not the role of the courts though Judges were replaced by Nazi reporters—opponents could still be punished if they did have a trial 1934—Hitler sets up People’s Court—this was to try the ‘enemies of the state’ 1939—had already sentenced over 500 people to death and sent many to concentration camps

22 The Concentration Camps Set up as prisions for Hitler’s enemies First one in Dachau, opened in 1933 Were supposed to ‘correct’ opponents so that they stopped opposing Nazis Many were killed in these camps During the war many camps became extermination camps Main gate for the prisoners. ARBEIT MACHT FREI--"Freedom through work", or "Work sets you free".

23 How did Hitler get the German people to obey him? Police State –If people did not respond to the choose to accept Nazi ideas, then they must be forced to accept –The police had the power to do as they wished –German citizens had few rights –Hitler developed a number of agencies to enforce terror

24 The SA and the SS SA (Strum Abteilung) –Formed in 1921 by Hitler to attract more followers –Ex-soldiers, unemployed, men who felt betrayed by the Weimar government; disrupted meetings of Hitler’s opposition –known as ‘brownshirts, hence the brown uniform; by 1934 there were over 2 million –Expected Hitler to take wealth from the rich, –The SA leader believed that they should take over the army and that the SA focus should be a National Socialist Germany SS (Schutzstaffel) –Formed in 1925 as Hitler’s personal bodyguard –Technically part of the SA, however leader, Heinrich Himmler wanted them to be a separate organization –In 1934 Himmler told Hitler that the SA planned to overthrow him (this is debatable) –Hitler had the leaders arrested and executed –The SS then controlled the Nazi police and were completely loyal to Hitler –They were supposed to be perfect examples of Aryan men

25 Divisions of the SS The SD (Sicherheitdienst) –Responsible for state security –Search out and deal with enemies of the Nazis The Waffen SS –Units who fought with the army The Death’s Head Units –Controlled concentration camps (originally controlled by the SA)

26 The Gestapo Geheime Staatspolizei—the secret police first set up in given power in the whole of Germany Like SD, searche dout enemies of Nazis Could arrest anyone and send them to concentration camps without trial Informers were used to uncover any opposition orginizations 1939— Germans imprisoned without trial 1936—Himmler’s deputy, Richard Heydrich becomes head of Gestapo—in effect under SS control

27 The Courts SD and Gestapo could put people in concentration camps without trial so courts could not protect Germans from police—this was not the role of the courts though Judges were replaced by Nazi reporters—opponents could still be punished if they did have a trial 1934—Hitler sets up People’s Court—this was to try the ‘enemies of the state’ 1939—had already sentenced over 500 people to death and sent many to concentration camps

28 The Concentration Camps Set up as prisions for Hitler’s enemies First one in Dachau, opened in 1933 Were supposed to ‘correct’ opponents so that they stopped opposing Nazis Many were killed in these camps During the war many camps became extermination camps Main gate for the prisoners. ARBEIT MACHT FREI--"Freedom through work", or "Work sets you free".

29 The Workers Reich Labour Service –This was set up for all school dropouts (after the age of 14) and for unskilled workers –They carried out jobs that required many unskilled workers, such as draining the marshes The German Labour Front –Set up to replace trade unions, which were considered to be too closely connected to the socialists and communist parties

30 (The German Labour Front con’t) The concept of ‘Volkgemeinschaft’ –the idea of everyone working together for the good of the country –The Nazis wanted the people to return to the spirit of working during the First World War when people sacrificed themselves for the good of the country The committee was made up of representatives of employers and workers and they could only recommend higher wages and better working conditions

31 Autarky Hitler 1936: –“It is impossible for us, at present, to manufacture certain raw materials which we lack in Germany. The final solution lies in extending out living space, that is to say, extending the sources of raw materials and foodstuffs for our people.” Hitler wanted Germany to be economically self- sufficient; establishing autarky

32 The Women The place for women was in the home, but this was considered and very important job by the Nazis Nazi propaganda posters depicted women looking after husbands and children—which they were taught in schools Girls were told not to smoke and or diet—both might affect their ability to have healthy children Professional women (doctors, lawyers, etc.) were forced to give up working to have children

33 Women were allowed to teach since teaching children was an important job Nazi slogans described the role of women as ‘Different, not inferior’ Producing children was vital for the Nazis as they saw children as the first generation who would grow up in a Nazi world 1933—the birth of Germany had dropped by two million (due men being killed in WWI)

34 Babies=money Nazis offered marriage loans of 600 marks and if women had more than 4 children this loan did not have to be paid back If you had 8 children you were awarded the Honour Cross—it was awarded on the 12 of august every year, Hitler’s mother’s birthday 1933— babies born 1939— born Bronze Cross—5-6 children Silver Cross—6-7 children Gold Cross—7-8 children

35 Anti-abortion laws enforced, contraceptives hard to get Nazis only wanted healthy, Aryan children, –Jews could not get marriage loans –Women with hereditary disease could be sterilized 1939—women were allowed to work in factories for the war effort League of German Girls (BDM) was set up to educate girls in family life and to make them healthy so they could produce lots of children

36 Nazi Youth Bernhard Rust, Nazi Minister of Education— “the whole purpose of education is to create Nazis.” Mandatory schooling up to age of 14 Boys and girls went to separate schools All subjects stressed Nazi beliefs –In History class students were taught that the German army had been “stabbed the back” by the Weimer government at the end of World War I –Biology taught students that Germans, as members of the Aryan race, were superior to all races –Girls education consisted of how to be the perfect housewife and mother

37 The Church How did the Nazis deal with Christianity? 1933—most Germans were Christians Belonged to either Roman Catholic Church or Protestant Churches –Protestant church had no head Roman Catholic very strong in south Germany, especially in Bavaria (Nazis’ home state) Many Protestant Churches openly supported Nazis, at first so did the Catholic Church 1933—Hitler signed the Concordat with the Pope –An agreement which said the Catholic Church would be left alone by Nazis as long as they stayed out of politics

38 Why did the churches support the Nazis? To many Christians, Weimer Germany seemed to be an immoral country, but the Nazis supported the family and old-fashioned moral standard Hitler expressed his support for the church in his speeches Nazis opposed communism. –Communism wanted to destroy Christianity and so the church feared them –Hitler seemed the only hope in the struggle against communism

39 Hitler Youth vs. Catholic Youth Nazis did not leave the Catholic Church alone Catholic Church had a strong youth base—one which rivalled the Hitler Youth Many parents preferred to send children to Catholic Youth than to Hitler Youth Catholic Church ran many schools –These students did not face propaganda, therefore, could grow up as opponents of Nazis –Schools ordered to remove all Christian symbols –Eventually, schools taken from church control –1937—Pope protested to Hitler –1937—Catholic Church made illegal

40 Christian Punishment 1/3 of all Catholic priests were punished by the Nazis 400 put in a special block at Dachau concentration camp Many Germans went to Catholic Church, and church leaders were applauded when they appeared in public They rarely opposed Nazis Protestants were divided between those who supported Nazis and those who did not

41 The Nazi Religion The Nazis set up their own Christian church so they could gain control of Christianity Some did support the church, but it was not a success Faith Movement—a pagan set up by the Nazis in a further attempt to remove the influence of the Christian church Used Norse myths to appeal to feelings of past greatness

42 Treatment of minorities The Jews were not the only group treated as second class citizens Gypsies, Vagrants, Black people, Mentally ill, and Homosexuals were all treated terribly

43 The Gypsies Gypsies were targeted for 2 reasons: –They were not Aryans—the superior rates –They were ‘asocial’—move from area to area and did not have regular jobs, meaning they could not be part of the Volkgemeinschaft, the idea of self- sacrifice that the Nazis wanted to instil in all Germans Nazi scientists regarded gypsies as inferior by race and could never be taught to be good Germans 1939—all gypsies were ordered to be sent to concentration camps in the newly conquered Poland gypsies were murdered

44 Vagrants People who moved town to town—for example those looking for work, maybe youth, beggars, etc. Nazi solution was to force these people to work 1938—more than vagrants gathered and placed in concentration camps There they were ‘educated’ in how to work

45 Black People Although few black people were in Germany they were subject to Nuremburg Laws Germans not allowed to marry blacks Black music—popular in the 1920s—viewed as ‘degenerate’ and un-German Children born to German women by black soldiers were sterilized (black soldiers had been stationed in the Rhineland after the First World War)

46 Mentally Ill Mental illness was considered heredity and incurable Mentally ill (or those considered to be so) were sterilized 1945— people sterilized By the time war started the mentally ill were considered of no use so they were killed The ‘Public Ambulance Service Ltd.’ was set up to carry out this service—by people were killed

47 Homosexuals The Weimar republic allowed homosexuals some freedom—there is evidence of a gay club Some leading Nazis were homosexual, however, the Nazis made homosexuality illegal The role of adults was to procreate 1943—Himmler ordered the death penalty for all homosexuals found in the SS and police Commemorative plaque in Berlin.

48 The Treatment of Jews 1933—Jewish people made up 1% of population, however, they made up 16% of lawyers and 10% of doctors Many Germans were reported to be jealous of their success and suspicious of their religion 1933—Hitler ordered SA to turn customers away from Jewish shops –They also smashed windows people were ordered to stop using Jewish lawyers and Jewish doctors and nurses were ordered to only attend to Jewish patients

49 1935 Nuremberg Laws passed –Illegal for Jews to marry non-Jews, or even have sexual intercourse with them –Jews deprived of German citizenship and lost right to vote –Jews were stopped from using swimming pools, restaurants, and other public facilities –Jews were defined as anyone who had at least one Jewish grandparent In schools, children were taught to hate Jews 1933 to 1938, 30% of all Jews emigrated from Germany

50 Kristallnacht 1938 a German diplomat in Paris was shot and killed by Herschel Grynszpan Grynszpan had heard that Jews, including his family, were deported from Germany to the boarder of Poland and the Poles refused them The German response was the Night of the Broken Glass when 7500 Jewish businesses were destroyed and Jews were sent to concentration camps

51

52


Download ppt "Hitler’s Germany In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany, and had almost complete control of Germany—only the aged President Hindenburg could stop."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google