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© Boardworks Ltd of 24 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd of 24 Hitler’s Role in the Development of the Nazi Party Nazi Germany
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd of 24 Learning objectives How Hitler’s image was created. The reality which lay behind this image. The effect of Hitler on the Nazi government, including: a) the Führer Principle (Führerprinzip) b) the Hitler Myth c) how Hitler controlled ministers and departments d) whether there was ‘authoritarian anarchy’ e) whether this chaos was intentional or not. What we will learn in this presentation:
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 What do you think of Hitler?
© Boardworks Ltd of Hitler’s Image: The Führer Principle and the Hitler Myth
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 From its formation in 1871, Germany had been dominated by strong leaders striving for national unity and global importance. The democratic Weimar Republic, with its lack of strong leadership and constant power struggles between political parties, was seen as having failed to deal effectively with Germany’s post-war problems. By 1932, the Weimar political system had been discredited. Many Germans felt that the only way to turn this situation around was to have one strong leader, prepared to take ‘personal responsibility’ for running the country. A strong Germany?
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 The Führer Principle (Führerprinzip) was the belief that Germany needed a strong, charismatic leader who could unify and lead the people. Hitler’s power came to be regarded as something above and beyond that of a normal head of state. No matter who you were in the Nazi party or whatever your job in the state, you were answerable to Hitler. Hans Franck, Hitler’s lawyer, wrote that: “Our constitution is the will of the führer…it was Hitler’s regime, Hitler’s policy, Hitler’s victory and Hitler’s defeat – nothing else.” Photograph courtesy of the Imperial War Museum, London. The Führer Principle
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 On the next slides you will see five statements on the role of the führer from Ernst Huber, a constitutional theorist of the Third Reich. Which quote do you think best summarizes what the führerprinzip meant to the Nazis? Führer power
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 The office of führer has developed out of the National Socialist movement. In its origins, it is not a state office. The Führerprinzip
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 The position of the führer combines in itself all sovereign power of the Reich. The Führerprinzip
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 All public power in the state, as in the movement, is derived from führer power. The Führerprinzip
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 This is comprehensive and total and embraces all spheres of national life. The Führerprinzip
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Führer power is not restricted by safeguards and controls…but rather it is free and independent, exclusive and unlimited. The Führerprinzip
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 The Hitler Myth presented Hitler as an almost godlike figure to a German population eager for strong leadership. He was depicted as being solely responsible for the ‘economic miracle’ of the 1930s and for crushing threats from both the Communists (following the Reichstag Fire) and extreme Nazism (in the Night of the Long Knives). The Hitler Myth
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Ian Kershaw, a respected historian of Nazi Germany, has investigated the way in which the Hitler Myth was built up to consolidate the Führer Principle. In his view, the Nazis took power in 1933 because of Hitler, not because of their ideology. Analysis
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Kershaw’s view
© Boardworks Ltd of The Reality: How did the Fuhrer Principle and the Hitler Myth affect government?
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Hitler’s direct circle consisted of about 70 key figures. These people were rewarded primarily for their loyalty. Their talent was a secondary consideration. Many of their jobs overlapped, leading to confusion and competition. For example, Goering’s responsibilities for military planning overlapped with the work of the Ministry of Economics and the Reich Labour Service. Control of departments and ministers
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Some historians argue that Hitler created confusion on purpose, believing that competition would bring the most committed administrators to the fore – Social Darwinism. Others think that he simply made a pig’s ear of organizing the state. Was the chaos deliberate?
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Hitler’s staff
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 The question of whether Hitler deliberately engineered authoritarian anarchy for his own ends, is key to the much bigger and more serious issue of how to account for the terrible events of the Third Reich. Were they chiefly down to: a) the personality, ideology and the will of Hitler (so Hitler was 'Master of the Third Reich') b) the political culture of the German people (so Hitler was a 'Weak dictator')? Why do you think that this is such an important question for historians to answer? OR Was the chaos intentional?
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Historians who think that Hitler intentionally created a chaotic system of government are called intentionalists. Historians who think that the chaos came about by an unintentional series of events are called structuralists. BOTH accept that there was a certain degree of chaos in the Nazi state; BOTH agree that Hitler was a central figure within it; BUT beyond that there are essential differences of interpretation. Intentionalists and structuralists
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 IntentionalistsStructuralists Key argument: Key quote: Hitler deliberately created political chaos, partly to ‘divide and rule’ and partly believing that Social Darwinism would lead to the best people triumphing. Political chaos was an unwelcome legacy of the past which shaped Hitler’s policies. He was also indecisive and lazy in some ways. ‘Hitler was master in the Third Reich’ (Norman Rich) ‘unwilling to take decisions, frequently uncertain … in some respects a weak dictator’ (Hans Mommsen) Intentionalists and structuralists
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 What do you know now?
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 1.What is the essential difference between the Intentionalists and the Structuralists? 2.How do you think each group got its name? 3.Which argument do you find most convincing and why? Discussion point
© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Hitler's Role in the Development of the Nazi Regime Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started.
Hitler: ‘master in the Third Reich’ or ‘weak dictator’? Debate.
The Nazi State Hitler – “Master in the Third Reich or weak dictator?”
Was Hitler Master of the Third Reich or a Weak Dictator? A case study in interpretation.
Where did power lie in the Third Reich? Hitler? Traditional Institutions? Nazi Party? SS? Gestapo?
The Government of the Third Reich Decision Making in the Third Reich.
Nazi Germany: The Big Questions How did Hitler become dictator of Germany? Reichstag Fire Feb 1933 Enabling Act March 1933: makes Germany.
The Munich Putsch 1923 LO: To understand and explain the importance of the Munich Putsch.
Gleichschaltung – the consolidation of society under Nazi control Local government – power centralised under Nazi control Local state govs. abolished.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
The Hitler Myth nature and effects of the myth Hitler’s personal popularity.
© Boardworks Ltd of 18 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 How the Nazis Consolidated Power Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This.
© Boardworks Ltd of 6 Icons key: Teacher’s notes (in Notes Page)Flash activity (not editable) Web links Nazi Germany: Hitler’s Rise to Power.
QUIZ pp What was at the core of Hitler’s political and social beliefs? 2.What was the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKER’S PARTY? 3.Who were the.
STRUCTURALIST S Believe: FUNCTIONALISTS / STRUCTURALISTS Mommsen, Broszat (1970s <) Opportunistic, non-determinist, weak dictator. “Confusion of Private.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
Lesson 5a – Role of the Nazi Party Essential Question What role did the Nazi Party play in their rise to power? Learning Outcomes - Students will: Learn.
© Boardworks Ltd of 18 Hitler's Rise to Power Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates.
Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Section 5 Objectives Analyze the problems faced by the Weimar Republic. Describe the Nazi party’s political, social,
HIST3025 Hitler and the National Socialist Ideology Lecture 9: Leadership, Propaganda, Mobilization 2 May 2013.
© Boardworks Ltd of 12 The Role and Importance of Hitler in the Development of the Nazi Party 1919–33.
◦ Hitler was born in Austria, failed in school, and went to Vienna to become an artist. ◦ Racism, especially anti-Semitism, was fundamental to Hitler’s.
Unit 12 Interwar Period 28-5 Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany.
Where did power lie in the 3 rd Reich? Hitler & the German people Hitler is all-powerful because he represents the will of the people. Yes! Leader, we.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 How and Why did Nazism Collapse? Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This.
Chapter 16 World War Looms 1930’s in Europe. Dictators Threaten World Peace Russia Bolshevik Revolution-Vladimir Lenin – Democracy fails, Communism state.
Germany Introduction By S. Angelo Head Teacher History East Hills Girls Technology High School.
NEW ELECTION! Hitler wants to win MAJORITY He controls newspapers and radio stations Opponents are intimidated.
How do historians explain the rise of Hitler? L/O – To evaluate the historiographical schools of thought and historians interpretations on the rise of.
© Boardworks Ltd of 18 How Successful was Nazi Propaganda? Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This.
Do Now Work on the Treaty of Versailles Scenario Acitivty.
The Rise of Dictators. Types of Government Dictator – a person exercising absolute power and unrestricted control in a gov. without hereditary succession.
CHAPTER 15 LESSON 3 DAY 1 Hitler and Nazi Germany.
Rise of Dictators Hitler Mussolini Japan. Reasons for Dictators The depression in Europe gave rise to the dictators in Spain, Italy and Germany. People.
Why did the Nazis rise to power?. POINT The weaknesses of the Weimar governments/politicians played a part in the rise to power of the Nazis. KU - Unpopular.
APPEASEMENT. IN EUROPE… 1930s - The rise of fascism Fascism – a political movement based on extreme nationalism, lack of individual rights, and one-party.
Unit: Between the Wars Topic: The Rise of Nazi Germany.
© Boardworks Ltd of 22 © Boardworks Ltd of 22 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes.
Chapter 16 World War Looms 1930’s in Europe. Democracy to Dictatorships Russia Bolshevik Revolution-Vladimir Lenin – Democracy fails, Communism state.
© Boardworks Ltd of 17 The Origins of the Cold War The Cold War This icon indicates that detailed teacher’s notes are available in the Notes Page.
© Boardworks Ltd of 21 Hitler's Foreign Policy Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates.
Rise of the Nazis 1. Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic Higher History.
Consolidation of power. WARNING! Remember these answers are not full answers but are just suggestions of points that you could include!
Chancellor to Dictator: How did Hitler remove opposition ? Lesson aims: To be able to explain the methods used to remove opposition between.
Hitler’s Rise to Power. Nazis grow in Popularity German economy began to recover in the late-1920’s. Until…… Stock Market Crashed in 1929 –Germany one.
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Rise of Nazi Germany.
E. Napp Fascism In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Fascism Militarism Anti-Semitism Racism Social Darwinism.
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