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HITLER’S GOALS Rearm Take back Saar Basin and Upper Silesia

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Presentation on theme: "HITLER’S GOALS Rearm Take back Saar Basin and Upper Silesia"— Presentation transcript:

1 HITLER’S GOALS Rearm Take back Saar Basin and Upper Silesia
Absorb and remilitarize Rhineland Control Polish Corridor Expand German Territory through military conquest

Based on Hitler’s racial theory that the Aryan “race” was superior to all others and therefore had the right and obligation to assert its will on the “inferior” Slavic people of the East Planned to conquer Eastern Europe and use it for German settlements and agriculture. Slavic people of region would serve German master race as slaves

3 LIAR Hitler was quiet about his foreign policy goals at first
Because Germany was militarily weak and vulnerable He did quit the Geneva Disarmament Conference in October 1933 and the League of Nations later But still claimed he only wanted peace

4 DEAL WITH POLAND Signed Non-Aggression Agreement with Poland
January 1924 Had no intention of respecting this agreement Had signed this treaty to screw up France’s diplomatic strategy of surrounding Germany with potential enemies Stalin reacts badly to treaty Joined League of Nations in September 1934, signed defense treaty with France in May 1935, and signed defense treaty with Czechoslovakia Joseph Pilsudski

5 BENITO MUSSOLINI Hitler and Mussolini had much in common
One possible source of contention was Austria Hitler wanted to annex it Mussolini wanted to take over the Tyrol region Both men therefore viewed each other with suspicion at first Mutual suspicion was overcome by the fact that Italy and Germany were natural allies since they both shared France as an enemy

6 MUSSOLINI’S ACTIONS Attacked and conquered Albania
Attempted to turn Somalia into gigantic Italian army base Routinely used poison gas and public executions to solidify Italian rule in Lybia Worked to increase international tensions

7 AUSTRIA 1934 Hitler orchestrated the murder of Englebert Dolfuss in 1934 Right-wing dictator of Austria Wanted to maintain Austrian independence from Germany Had banned the Nazi Party in Austria Austrian Nazis killed Dolfuss and tried to seize control of country Coup failed and Kurt Schuschnigg emerged as leader of country Right-wing Catholic politician Committed to maintaining Austria independence

8 DANGEROUS LESSON The lesson that Hitler drew from the Austrian crisis was that Great Britain, France, and Italy would not mount any sort of effective, concerted response to blatant German moves against Austria

9 REARMAMENT Hitler announce he was going to increase size of German army to 500,000 men, institute the draft, and that the airforce was being rebuilt March 1935 In defiance of Versailles Treaty To head off action by England and France, he also offered to sign individual treaties of peace and friendship, promised to uphold Treaty of Locarno, and to respect the independence of Austria

10 INVASION OF ETHIOPIA Ethiopia invaded in October 1935 by Italian army
To avenge defeat of 1896 Used modern weapons against Ethiopian forced who still primarily used spears and bows and arrows Invasion was encouraged by Hitler

11 RAMIFICATIONS Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations
League imposed economic sanctions against Italy But left sanctions weak by excluding oil from list of embargo products Did not close Suez Canal to Italian ships heading for Ethiopia Over 500,000 Ethiopians killed in fighting (only 5000 Italian casualties). Country falls in May 1936. Mussolini had blatantly defied the League of Nations and had gotten away with it

12 RHINELAND Hitler moved troops into the region in March 1936
In violation of Versailles Treaty Claimed he would have withdrawn if the French had responded But the French did not respond Hitler claimed that this move was needed to help Germany defend itself from possible aggression from France and Soviet Union

13 INCREASED TENSION By 1938, German armaments production absorbed 52% of all state expenditures and 17% of the GNP Provoked arms buildup in Great Britain and France Situation resembled arms race that occurred before World War I

Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator in 1923 Forced to resign in 1930 Coalition of republicans and socialists set up Spanish Republic in 1931 Prime minister Manuel Azana antagonized conservatives and army Azana falls from power in September 1933 Left-wing government set up in 1935 Undermined by the Falange Paramilitary fascist group headed by General Francisco Franco Government declares Falange illegal Sparked military insurrection against the Republic and start of civil war

15 WEAKNESSES Fragility of governing coalition hindered an effective response Anarchist peasants in Catalonia and Aldalusia launch social revolution Moderate socialists and even communists feared this act would compromise their efforts Withheld supplies and ammunition from them and bickered among themselves

16 SPANISH CIVIL WAR I Savage conflict At least 600,000 people killed
Mostly civilians At least 200,000 republicans executed by fascists “fiestas of death” Foreign volunteers helped republicans Abraham Lincoln Brigade Not especially effective Western Democracies provided no official help to republicans With the exception of the Soviet Union

17 SPANISH CIVIL WAR II Mussolini helped Franco Sent 100,000 soldiers
Italian planes destroy republican supply lines Hitler used Spain as a military training ground Sent planes, guns, munitions, and other supplies German advisors trained fascist pilots German pilots ran bombing runs Destroyed Basque town of Guernica Inspired famous Picasso painting of same name Franco won in January 1939

18 FORMATION OF “AXIS” Italy and Germany sign pact in October 1936
Agreed that Germany’s interests lay in the east while Italy could have the Mediterranean region Mussolini now copied Hitler Ordered soldiers to goose-step Adopted Nazi salute Began campaign against Italian Jews

19 JAPAN Japanese army had million men (and two million reserves) and 2000 fighter planes by 1930 Began conquest of Manchuria in 1931 Feared Soviet Union might block military expansion in Asia Signed friendship treaty with Germany in 1936 Called “Anti-Comintern” Pact Began full-scale war against China shortly thereafter Angered by Japanese aggression, the U.S., GB, and France impose embargo on oil and other raw materials on Japan in 1940

20 ANSCHLUSS Schuschnigg announces a referendum on the question of Austrian independence from Germany In response to Hitler’s pressure to legalize Austrian Nazi Party Hitler responds by ordering German troops into Austria (March 12, 1938) Greeted by cheering crowds Nazis then arrest 70,000 people and begin harassing Jews Austria is unified with Nazi Germany

21 MUNICH: BACKGROUND Eduard Benes tries to get support from Soviet Union and France to resist Hitler’s demand for the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia USSR would not help unless France did first France would not help without British support GB did not intend to provide support Neville Chamberlain flies to Germany on September 5, 1938 Agrees to convince the French and Czechs to accept Nazi annexation of Sudetenland Hitler promises to make no more territorial demands

22 APPEASEMENT AT MUNICH On September 19, GB and France virtually force Czech government to agree to give up Sudetenland to Hitler Chamberlain returns to Germany on September 22 Informs Hitler that remainder to Czechoslovakia be protected by joint agreement Hitler refuses and threatens war Chamberlain and French president Eduard Daladier meet again with Hitler at Munich in late September Agree to German annexation of Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler’s “promise” to leave rest of Czechoslovakia alone

23 POST-MUNICH Hitler invades Czechoslovakia on March 16, 1939
Hitler demands that Lithuania give him port city of Memel Hitler demands that Poland give him Danzig and control of the Polish Corridor

24 ROAD TO WAR GB signs pact with Poland, guaranteeing Polish independence in the event of German attack (April 16, 1939) Draft reinstituted in GB (April 26) France already committed to defend Poland Hitler thought they were bluffing but was willing to fight a general war if necessary

25 WAR Hitler orders army to prepare for invasion of Poland on April 3, 1939 Hitler signs formal military alliance with Mussolini (May 1939) Pact of Steel Germany and Soviet Union sign “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact” on August 23, 1939 Stalin got free hand to deal with eastern Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland as he saw fit Stalin promised not to interfere with German invasion of Poland German invasion of Poland begins on September 1, 1939

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