2Internal milieu is the EXTRA CELLULAR FLUID ENVIRONMENT. Blood Lymph Interstitial fluid(Claude Bernard and Charles Robin)
3Blood - fluid of the circulatory system. Lymph - fluid of the lymphatic system.Interstitial – fluid which surrounds ALL our CELLS (including the vessels).
4Blood – 1 of the 3 components of the circulatory system Blood – 1 of the 3 components of the circulatory system. This system distributes nourrishment/oxygen. It also drives out waste that our body does not need
5The circulatory system is composed of heart – vessels – blood.
6The heart is composed of: Two atriums (two cavities at the top)Two ventricles (two cavities at the bottom)
7The circulatory system has 2 circuits: Pulmonary circulation: heart – lungs - heart.Systemic circulation: heart - whole body - heart.
8Pulmonary circulation: takes blood which is poor in oxygen from the left ventricle to the lungs and brings that blood back to the right atrium.
9Systemic circulation: takes oxygenated blood which from right ventricle to the lungs and brings that blood back to the left atrium.
10The double circulatory system distributes what we need to all our cells. To do so, it needs the help of the interstitial fluid. The interstitial fluid is the liquid surrounding our cells.
11Vessels don’t reach all cells of the body Vessels don’t reach all cells of the body. To distribute to all cells what our body needs, the space among the cells is filled up with a liquid, which is called interstitial fluid.
12What is the internal milieu? The circulatory and the respiratory system.The digestive system.The fluids which transport to our body what we need and drive out the waste.All the answers are true.
13What does the interstitial fluid do? Distribute nourishment to the cells of our body that are far from the circulatory system.Distribute nourishment to all the cells of the body.Help eliminate from our body what we don’t need.Second and third answers are correct.
14Which are the components of the circulatory system? Blood, vessels, lymph and heart.Blood, vessels, nodles and heart.Heart, lymph, interstitial fluid and blood.Heart, vessels and blood.
15Which of the following is true The pulmonary system takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the lungs.The systemic system takes oxigenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.The lungs send oxygenated blood to the right atrium.Second and third answers are true.
16Interstitial fluid - This liquid is basically made of water, salt, sugar, hormones, neurotransmitters, carbon dioxide and fatty acids. Its composition is very similar to plasma…
17The substances that our body needs (oxygen and nourrishment) pass from the vessels to the interstitial fluid through the SYSTOLIC pressure (the pressure coming from heart).
18At the same time, the substances that our body DOESN’T need and has to eliminate pass from the interstitial fluid to some capillaries which are called lymph capillaries.
19What is the interstitial fluid made of? Blood and water.Water, salt, sugar, hormones, neurotransmitters, carbon dioxide and fatty acids.Only plasma and fatty acids.Only plasma and hormones.
20What is the interstitial space? The space among cellsThe space containing interstitial fluidThe tissue spaceAll the answers are correct.
21How do required substances get into our vessels? Through the osmotic pressureThrough the systolic pressureFirst and second answers are trueNone of the previous answers is true.
22What is the systolic pressure? The pressure pushed by the heart into the interstitial fluidThe pressure pulled by the heart from the interstitial fluidThe pressure pushed out of the vessels by the different presence of water between interstitial fluid and the blood.The pressure pulled into the vessels by the different presence of water between the interstitial fluid and the blood.
23Which are the vessels where the non needed substances are concentrated? ArteriesPlateletsLymph capillariesWhite blood cells
24The substances that our body does not need pass to the lymphatic capillaries through the OSMOTIC pressure. Lymph vessels
25This pressure is possible due to a different concentration of water in the interstitial fluid and in the blood. Basically, plasma and interstitial fluid are very similar, but interstitial fluid has a higher concentration of water.
26Vessels themselves are made of cells, very thin cells, which are called ….
27What are vessels made of? They are made of cellsThey are made of tissueThey are made of red cellsFirst and second are true
28How can interstitial fluid squeeze into lymph capillaries? Due to a different concentration of water of blood and interstitial fluidThe heart pulls the interstitial fluid into the vessels.Both of them are trueNone of them is true
29Blood... Has a higher concentration of water than interstitial fluid Has a lower concentration of water than interstitial fluidHas the same concentration of water than the interstitial fluidNone of them is true
30Vessels are divided into veins, arteries and capillaries.
31Inside the vessels, there is plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. When the blood coagulates, the plasma loses a part of its ingredients. This is the human serum.
32Interstitial fluid is a solution that surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. It is found in all interstitial spaces, that is to say, in all the spaces among the cells. (tissue spaces)
33The interstitial fluid is composed of water, of course, but also of salt, sugar, hormones, neurotransmisors...
34On average, a person has about 11 litres of interstitial fluid BUT ONLY 5 LITERS OF BLOOD. The interstitial fluid provides alls the cells of the body with nourrishment and it is also a mean of wasting removal. It makes up 16% of the total body weight, whereas blood makes up 8% of the total body weight.
35How many kinds of vessels are there in our body?
36How many kinds of vessels are there in our body? Arteries, veins and capillaries
42What happens when the blood coagulates? When the blood coagulates, the plasma loses a part of its ingredients. The result is the human serum.
43Plasma and interstitial fluid are very similar Plasma and interstitial fluid are very similar. Plasma is the major component of blood.This similarity is due to a continuous exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid.
44In the vessels (blood vessels) there is a certain concentration of water, which is lower that outside the vessels. The reason for this less concentration of water inside the vessels is keeping the equilibrium.
45The heart (systolic force) generates a HYDROSTATIC pressure, which pushes the water OUT OF the vessels.Small solutes have the ability of passing through the walls of the capillaries. This is called osmosis. The OSMOTIC pressure drives water back into the capillaries.
46Lymph is the fluid that is formed when the interstitial fluid is collected through capillaries (lymph capillaries). The interstitial fluid gets into the capillaries through the OSMOTIC pressure, that is to say, due to a different concentration of water in the interstitial fluid and in the blood.
47The lymph is transported through the lymph vessels into the lymph nodes.
48When our body has a bacteria, lymph picks it up and brings it to lymph nodes, where it is destroyed.
49Blood is the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system Blood is the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system. It is composed of:Plasma. Over ½ of blood is plasma (=water, salt and proteins)blood cells (red & white)platelets
50Its main functions are: Deliver oxygen to the musclesRegulate the internal temperature (that is to say, remove heat)Take away from the organism the lactic acid (balance)
51Plasma represents Almost 8% of human blood Almost 16% of human blood
52Which of the following is true? Interstitial fluid is made of plasma.Plasma is very different to interstitial fluid due to a continuous exchange between plasma and interstitial fluidPlasma is very similar to interstitial fluid.
53Approximately 8% of our body weight is made up of blood (whereas interstitial fluid means 16% of our weight). This means around 4-5 litres in a woman and 5-6 litres in a man. The slight difference is due to the size of the body, which is usually bigger in a man.
54Blood normal temperature is about 38ºC. Blood in the arteries has a brighter red, because it contains a higher concentration of oxygen.It has not been found an artificial substitute of human blood yet.
55Blood normal temperature is about 38ºC. Blood in the arteries has a brighter red, because it contains a higher concentration of oxygen.
56It is the main ingredient of blood (approximately 55%) It is the main ingredient of blood (approximately 55%). 5% of blood is composed of red cells.When blood coagulates, some plasma ingredients disappear. The rest of it is the blood serum.
57Which of the following is true? Approximately 8% of our body weight is made up of blood and 16% of our body weight is interstitial fluid.Approximately 16% of our body weight is made up of blood and 8% of our body weight is interstitial fluid
63What are the main functions of blood? Deliver oxygen to the musclesRegulate the internal temperature (that is to say, remove heat)Take away from the organism the lactic acid (balance)
64Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the cells that deliver oxygen to the body tissues through the circulatory system. The red blood cells take up oxygen in the lungs and release it into tissues when they squeeze through body’s capilaries.It is composed of:HemoglobinIronOxygen (responsible for the red color of the cells)
68What are red blood cells composed of? HemoglobinIronOxygen (responsible for the red color of the cells)
69White blood cells are the cells of the immune system that protect the body against infectious diseases and foreign invaders. They are also called leukocytes or leucocytes and derived from a potent cell in the bone marrow.
70Platelets are the cells which are responsible for the coagulation, that is to say, to stop bleeding. They also called "thrombocytes". They derived from the some cells of the bone marrow which are called megakaryocytes.