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Anatomy of Bones Bones zHead z1.Frontal z2 occipital z3 parietal z4 Temporal zNeck and spine zCervical=C1-C7 zThoracic=T1-T12 zLumbar= L1-L5 zSacrum.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of Bones Bones zHead z1.Frontal z2 occipital z3 parietal z4 Temporal zNeck and spine zCervical=C1-C7 zThoracic=T1-T12 zLumbar= L1-L5 zSacrum."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Anatomy of Bones

3 Bones zHead z1.Frontal z2 occipital z3 parietal z4 Temporal zNeck and spine zCervical=C1-C7 zThoracic=T1-T12 zLumbar= L1-L5 zSacrum zCoccyx z Upper extremity z Clavicle z Scapula z humerus z Ulna z Radius z Carpals z Metacarpals z phalanges z Torso z Sternum z Xiphoid process z Ribs (12)

4 Bones continued zLower extremity zPelvis zFemur zPatella zTibia zFibula zTarsals zCalcaneous zTalus zMetatarsals zPhalanges

5 Anatomy zTypes of Bones zLong- curved and long yFemur, humerus, tibia, fibula, radius, ulna, phalanges, metatarsal/metacarpal yMost commonly injured zShort - cubed shaped, they are spongy bone except at the surface, yWrist- carpals yFoot- tarsals zFlat - thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone yEx. Cranium, sternum, ribs, scapula zIrregular - compact - vertebrae zSutural or Wormian - small bones located between the joints of certain cranial bones. Soft spot on your head

6 Types of bones cont. zSesamoid - small bones wrapped in your tendons z1 st metatarsal zSpongy - short, carpals, tarsals zCompact - vertebrae

7 Anatomy of bone Structure zDiaphysis- main shaft of the long bone- hollow and covered by compact bone or periosteum zEpiphysis- end of long bones provide for muscle attachments zMetaphysis- the wider part at the end of the long bone- adjacent to the epiphyseal plate zArticular cartilage- hyaline cartilage- joint surfaces zPeriosteum- covering of long bone. Interlacing with the periosteum are fibers from the muscle/tendons zMedullary -hollow tube in the long bone contains a yellow fatty marrow zEndosteum - lining the medullary cavity

8 Type of joints zGliding - where bones glide over one another. zEx. Vertebrae, tarsals, carpals zHinge - one surface is round that fits into another concave surface. zEx. Elbow, knee: motion flex/ext zBall and Socket - movement in many planes/axis, such as ext/flex, int/ext rotation, abd/adduction, circumduction zEx. Hip and shoulder zCondyloid- movement similar to ball/socket but in two planes; forward/backward, flex/extension, abd/adduction zEx. Wrist, metacarpal phalangeal joint zSaddle - flex/extension, add/abduction circumduction zEx. thumb zPivot- rotation-movement in one plane about one axis. zEx. Radio-ulnar joint

9 Anatomical Movements zAnterior/Posterior zMedial/Lateral zSuperior/Inferior zSupine/Prone z______________ z1 flexion z2 extension z3 abduction z4 adduction z5 internal rotation z6 external rotation z 7 pronation z 8 Supination z 9 Dorsi flexion z 10 plantar flexion z 11 Circumduction z 12 inversion z 13 Eversion z 14 horizontal flexion/extension z 15 protraction/retraction

10 ROM is predetermined by: z1.Flexibility of muscles z2.flexibility of tendons z3.Flexibility of ligaments z4. By size z5.Factors of use z6.Injury z7.Age z8.Angle of the joint z9.Disease

11 Anatomical names z Rectus yParallel to the midline xEx. Rectus abdominis, rectus femoris z Transverse yPerpendicular to the midline xEx. Transverse abdominis z Oblique yDiagonal to the midline xEx. External Oblique or Internal oblique z Maximus yLarge xEx. Gluteus Maximus z Medius yMiddle xEx. Gluteus medius z Minimus ySmall xEx. Gluteus minimus, flexor digiti minimi

12 Naming Skeletal Muscles zLongus yLong xEx. Flexor hallicus longus, adductor longus zBrevis yShort xAdductor brevis, peroneal brevis zLatissimus yTriangular xEx. Latissimus dorsi zLongissimus yLong xEx. Longissimus thoracis zMagnus yLarge xEx. Adductor magnus zMajor yLarger muscle xPectoralis major zMinor ySmaller muscle xEx. Pectoralis minor

13 Naming Skeletal Muscles z Deltoid- ytriangular z Serratus- ysaw toothed xSerratus anterior z Rhomboid- yrhomboid shape xRhomboid major or minor z Quadratus- y4 sided xQuadratus lumborum z Flexor/Extensor yFlexor/ extensor carpi radialis z Abductor/adductor yAbductor/adductor hallicus longus zLevator- yElevates xLevator scapula zSupinator ySupination xSupinator zPronator- yPronation xPronator teres zRotator- yRotation xRotator cuff zBiceps /triceps- yTwo/three heads xBicep brachii/tricep brachii zQuadriceps- yfour


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