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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 19, part 1 Blood

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives List the components of the cardiovascular system and explain the major functions of this system. Describe the important components and major functions of the blood List the characteristics and functions of red blood cells. Describe the structure of hemoglobin and indicate its functions. Discuss red blood cell production and maturation.

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Explain the importance of blood typing and the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities. Categorize the various white blood cells on the basis of structure and function. Describe the structure, function and production of platelets. Describe the reaction sequences responsible for blood clotting.

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-1 The Cardiovascular System: An Introduction

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Provides a mechanism for rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells The cardiovascular system

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-2 Functions and Composition of Blood

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fluid connective tissue Functions include Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes Regulating pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids Restricting fluid loss at injury sites Defending the body against toxins and pathogens Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat Blood

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The composition of blood Plasma and formed elements comprise whole blood Red blood cells (RBC) White blood cells (WBC) Platelets Can fractionate whole blood for analytical or clinical purposes

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.1a Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.1b Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.1c Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Process of blood cell formation Hemocytoblasts are circulating stem cells that divide to form all types of blood cells Whole blood from anywhere in the body has roughly the same temperature, pH and viscosity Hemopoiesis

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-3 Plasma

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Accounts for 46-63% of blood volume 92% of plasma is water Higher concentration of dissolved oxygen and dissolved proteins than interstitial fluid Plasma

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings more than 90% are synthesized in the liver Albumins 60% of plasma proteins Responsible for viscosity and osmotic pressure of blood Plasma proteins

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Globulins ~35% of plasma proteins Include immunoglobins which attack foreign proteins and pathogens Include transport globulins which bind ions, hormones and other compounds Fibrinogen Converted to fibrin during clotting Removal of fibrinogen leaves serum Additional Plasma Proteins

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-4 Red Blood Cells

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Erythrocytes account for slightly less than half the blood volume, and 99.9% of the formed elements Hematocrit measures the percentage of whole blood occupied by formed elements Commonly referred to as the volume of packed red cells Abundance of RBCs

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biconcave disc, providing a large surface to volume ration Shape allows RBCs to stack, bend and flex RBCs lack organelles Typically degenerate in about 120 days. Structure of RBCs

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.2 Figure 19.2 The Anatomy of Red Blood Cells

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecules of hemoglobin account for 95% of the proteins in RBCs Hemoglobin is a globular protein, formed from two pairs of polypeptide subunits Each subunit contains a molecule of heme which reversibly binds an oxygen molecule Damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by phagocytes Hemoglobin

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.3 Figure 19.3 The Structure of Hemoglobin

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.4 Figure 19.4 “Sickling” in Red Blood Cells

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Replaced at a rate of approximately 3 million new blood cells entering the circulation per second. Replaced before they hemolyze Components of hemoglobin individually recycled Heme stripped of iron and converted to biliverdin, then bilirubin Iron is recycled by being stored in phagocytes, or transported throughout the blood stream bound to transferrin RBC life span and circulation

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.5 Figure 19.5 Red Blood Cell Turnover

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Erythropoeisis = the formation of new red blood cells Occurs in red bone marrow Process speeds up with in the presence of EPO (Erythropoeisis stimulating hormone) RBCs pass through reticulocyte and erythroblast stages RBC Production

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.6 Figure 19.6 Stages of RBC Maturation

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Determined by the presence or absence of surface antigens (agglutinogens) Antigens A, B and Rh (D) Antibodies in the plasma (agglutinins) Cross-reactions occur when antigens meet antibodies Blood types

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.8 Figure 19.8 Blood Typing and Cross-Reactions

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.9 Figure 19.9 Blood Type Testing

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Rh Factors and Pregnancy

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-5 The White Blood Cells

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Have nuclei and other organelles Defend the body against pathogens Remove toxins, wastes, and abnormal or damaged cells Are capable of amoeboid movement (margination) and positive chemotaxis Some are capable of phagocytosis Leukocytes

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Granular leukocytes Neutrophils – 50 to 70 % total WBC population Eosinophils – phagocytes attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies Basophils – migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine and heparin Types of WBC

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Agranular leukocytes Monocytes - become macrophage Lymphocytes – includes T cells, B cells, and NK cells Types of WBC

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure White Blood Cells

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Indicates a number of disorders Leukemia = inordinate number of leukocytes Differential count

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Granulocytes and monocytes are produced by bone marrow stem cells Divide to create progenitor cells Stem cells may originate in bone marrow and migrate to peripheral tissues Several colony stimulating factors are involved in regulation and control of production WBC Production

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Origins and Differentiation of Formed Elements Animation: The origins and differentiation of blood cells PLAY

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-6 Platelets

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flattened discs Circulate for 9-12 days before being removed by phagocytes Platelets

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Transporting chemicals important to clotting Forming temporary patch in walls of damaged blood vessels Contracting after a clot has formed Platelet functions

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Megakaryocytes release platelets into circulating blood Rate of platelet formation is stimulated by thrombopoietin, thrombocyte-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, and Multi-CSF Platelet production (thrombocytopoiesis)

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 19-7 Hemostasis

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hemostasis Prevents the loss of blood through vessel walls Three phases – Vascular phase Platelet phase Coagulation phase

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hemostasis Vascular phase Local blood vessel constriction (vascular spasm) Platelet phase Platelets are activated, aggregate at the site, adhere to the damaged surfaces

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Vascular and Platelet Phases of Hemostasis

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coagulation phase Factors released by platelets and endothelial cells interact with clotting factors to form a clot Extrinsic pathway Intrinsic pathway Common pathway Suspended fibrinogen is converted to large insoluble fibrin fibers

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.14a Figure The Coagulation Phase of Hemostasis

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.14b Figure The Coagulation Phase of Hemostasis

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clot retraction Final phase of healing Platelets contract and pull the edges of the vessel together

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrinolysis Clot gradually dissolves through action of plasmin Activated form of plasminogen Clotting can be prevented through the use of drugs that depress the clotting response or dissolve existing clots Anticoagulants include heparin, coumadin, aspirin, dicumarol, t- PA, streptokinase, and urokinase

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The components of the cardiovascular system and its major functions. The important components and major functions of the blood. The characteristics and functions of red blood cells. The structure of hemoglobin and its functions. Red blood cell production and maturation.

54 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The importance of blood typing and the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities. The various white blood cells. The structure, function and production of platelets. The reaction sequences responsible for blood clotting.


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