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BLOOD 8% body weight, 5-6 l, transporting medium functions: 1. Respiratory 2. Nutritional 3. Excretoric 4. Homeostatic a) water, ions, pH b) temperature.

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Presentation on theme: "BLOOD 8% body weight, 5-6 l, transporting medium functions: 1. Respiratory 2. Nutritional 3. Excretoric 4. Homeostatic a) water, ions, pH b) temperature."— Presentation transcript:

1 BLOOD 8% body weight, 5-6 l, transporting medium functions: 1. Respiratory 2. Nutritional 3. Excretoric 4. Homeostatic a) water, ions, pH b) temperature - specific heat, conductivity, latent heat 5. Chemical control 6. Immunity Formed elements + plasma hematocrit stability of suspension electrostatic forces proteiny bridges viskosity

2 Fluid x losses BLOOD – PLASMA – SERUM PLASMA Water Proteins – onkotic pressure, pH, hemostasis, immunity, transport, AMA pool elektroforesis albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, clotting faktors, lipopro- teins, haptoglobins, transferrin Organic substancies – nutriens, vitamins, cholesterol, waste products, hormons Electrolyts – Na, K, Cl, HCO 3, PO 4, Ca Gases – O 2, CO 2, N 2

3 ELEMENTS erythrocytes, leukocytes, trombocytes stem cells (resting, proliferating) progenitor colony increase in number of stem cells entering, shortening of the cycle, combination ERYTHROCYTES – lack of nuclei, ribosomes, mitochondria, 95% of dry weight Hb, shape, antigens Erythropoesis - multipotent (pluripotent, totipotent) stem cells unipotent (progenitor) EPO HIF EPO apoptosis of progenitors Ery line proerytroblast basophilic erytroblast (normoblast) Hb synthesis polychromatic erythroblast DNA synthesis restricted ortochromatic erytroblast (NORMOBLAST) Nuclei retikulocyte erythrocyte

4 Ery formation liver kidneys HIF EPO bone marrow Ery Hb concentration plasma volume Ox Red Hb lungs O 2 CO 2 afinity of Hb O 2 2,3 DPG renal aa. hormons Losses

5 Hb – 135 –170 g/l A, F, dissociation curve Metabolism Ery - shape, deformability - ion pumps - hem in ferroform - ROS scavanging no mitochondriae glycolysis carboanhydrase G G-6P NAD GSH H 2 O + CO 2 H + + HCO 3 - F-6P NADH GSSG F –1,6 P NAD G – 3P NADH 1,3 DPG difosfogycerate mutasea 2,3 DPG 3 PG difosfoglycerate fosfatase

6 Ery destruction aging membráne rigidity sferocyte CO 2 Fe transferrin bilirubin AMA RES Hb bilirubinglukuronid urobilin sterkobilin

7 ANEMIE hypoplastic, aplastic microcytic hypochromic sideropennic normocytic normochromic thalasemia makrocytic hyperchromic pernicious infiltration of bone marrow drugs hemorrhagic hemolytic acute bleeding intracorpuscular (hereditary, chronic spherocytosis, sicle cell) extracorpuscular (hypersplenism) POLYGLOBULIA

8 LEUKOCYTES - 7 x 10 9 /l % neutrophils 50 – 70 O 2 O 2 - H 2 O 2 OH eozinophilsí 1 – 4 granulocytes basophils < 1 monocytes 2 – 8 chemotaxis, secretion, adhesion, diapedesis, fagocytosis, ROS (NADPH oxidase, myeloperoxidase), proteases lymfocytes 20 – 40 T - helper/inducer - memory cells - supressors - cytotoxic - K - N K B - plasmatic - memory cells NADPH NADP

9 TROMBOCYTES 250 x 10 9 /l 2 – 4 u microtubuli, receptors for collagen, actin + myosin, granules (ADP, serotin), α granules (PDGF, PAF) HEMOSTASIS: 1) vessels – vasoconstriction (wall, serotonin, tromboxan A 2 ) 2) platelets - adhesion (receptors, von Willebrandův f.) - change of the shape - aggregation ADP plug granules TXA 2 vasokonstriction

10 3) clotting HMWK, LMWK kinins inflammation complement extrinsic - thromboplastin intrinsic – XII, kallikrein tkáňový aktivátor prothrombin thrombin plasmin plasminogen streptokinase fibrinogen fibrin stabilized fibrin fibrin degradation products Alterations of hemostasis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, consumption coagulopathy


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