This technique has been used for over 45 years. Since the cells in bone marrow are multipotent, they have the ability to differentiate into different blood cells. People with leukemia are given transplants with healthy blood. copyright cmassengale 7
Donated organs are used to replace those that are dying or diseased. However, the demand FAR outweighs the supply. Stem cells offer the possibility of a renewable source for tissues and organs. Possible areas include: Alzheimer’s disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes copyright cmassengale 8
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. 1. Blood is filtered for the presence of peripheral stem cells. Cells in the general circulation that can still differentiate into different types of blood cell otherwise known as stem cells. 2. Bone marrow can be removed before treatment. 3. patient requires heavy does of radiation and or chemotherapy. This will destroy health blood tissue as well as the diseased tissue. 4. Health stem cells or marrow cells can be transplanted back to produce blood cells
ProkaryotesPlants (Euk)Animals (Euk) Size< 5 um> 10 um Uni/MultiUniMulti NucleusNoYesyes DNAOne circular DNA in the nucleoid Many Linear DNA Complex structures NoMany- chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole Many – centrioles, lysosomes, flagella, cilia RibosomesSmall (70 s)Large (80 s) Cell DivisionBinary FissionMitosis/meiosisMitosis/Meiosis Cell MembraneYes CytoplasmYes
11 Materials move across the bilayer from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration. Materials move through a Transport Protein from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration. Materials move through a Transport Protein from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration. (REQUIRES ENERGY) #7
Greenhouse Gases are gases in the atmosphere that absorb and trap radiation and heat. H 2 O vapour CO 2 CH 4 NO x CFC
CFCs are chlorofluorocarbons These are molecules used in: Refrigerators Air conditioners Fire extinguishers Propellants in aerosol sprays
It was believed that they diffused harmlessly into the stratosphere where they were broken down by sunlight. This is true, BUT… We now know that in the process of breaking them down, a chlorine atom is produced. Chlorine is very destructive to the ozone layer. Chlorine reacts with ozone molecules and breaks it apart into oxygen, which cannot turn back into ozone. One chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules.
Sigmoid Population Growth a) Exponential Phase of rapid population growth rate due to lack of limiting factors b) Transition Phase of a slowing yet still high growth rate due to increasing limiting factors c) Plateau stage in which the population remains stable with time. There is no increase, but rather has reached the carrying capacity.
DefinitionExample HerbivoryThe eating of plantsCaterpillars, plant pests, rabbits, giraffes CompetitionWhen organisms try to get the same resource at the same time Inter-specific: hyenas and lions fighting over the zebra Intra-specific: male deer fighting over a female MutualismWhen organisms live closely together and both benefit Flowers and insects; cowbirds and cows PredationWhen one organism hunts, kills and eats another organism Mountain lion eating rabbits ParasitismWhen two organisms live closely together; one benefits and the other is harmed Mosquitos and humans; tapeworms and humans; flukes and sheep
Kudzu Also known as the "mile-a- minute vine" and "the vine that ate the South," the Kudzu vine is native to Japan, but was first brought to the United States in 1876 when it was featured at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition as a hardy, fast- growing vine that could help inhibit soil erosion. Since its introduction, Kudzu has been spreading across the U.S. at a rate as fast as 150,000 acres annually, due primarily to the fact that its individual vines can grow upwards of a foot per day in the right conditions,
The Black Rat The black rat is most likely one of the first invasive species to ever be inadvertently distributed by humans. The species hitched rides en masse on European ships. Since then, the black rat has thrived in just about every region of the world, and has adapted exceptionally well to rural, urban, and suburban environments alike. Unfortunately, its success as a species, in combination with the success of numerous other species of rats, is believed to have come at the expense of dramatic population declines and even extinction of countless bird, reptile, and other small vertebrate species the world over.
Temp. (degrees C) Rainfall (cm) PlantsAnimalsMisc. Tundra-70 to 1515-25Mosses, grasses, small shrubs Caribou, owls, hares, insects Midnight Sun; no trees, permafrost TaigaSlightly warmer 35-40Conifers, moss Moose, bears, wolves The largest on land Deciduous Forest -30 to 3075-150Oaks, maples, flowers, ferns Deer, birds, snakes, raccoons Rich soil; diverse life Rain ForestConstant – near 25 200-225Many, many Near equator; most diversity
Temp. (degrees C) Rainfall (cm) PlantsAnimalsMisc. Grassland-30 to 3025 to 90Wheat, corn, trees, grass Buffalo, deer, lion, elephant Rich soil ShrublandHot in the summer; cool in the winter 20-100Scrub oak, sage, yucca Birds, mice, mountain lion Desert-18 to 50<25Cacti, creosote Lizards, scorpions The driest and hottest