2Cut or injuryplatelets and injured tissue release Thromboplastin act on Prothrombin in plasma + Calcium ions converts to Thrombin the thrombin acts as an enzyme and changes Fibrinogen Fibrin creating a mesh that traps red blood cells, platelets and plasma creating a blood clot.Coagulation
3Coagulation Cont. Anticoagulants prevent blood clotting Heparin:antiprothrombinProthrombin is dependent on Vitamin KCoagulation Cont.
5Leukocytes Larger than erythrocytes Five types Leuk/o/cytes – white cellsLeukocytes2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system
6Leukocytes Larger than erythrocytes Granular or agranular 5 types Normal leukocyte count = 3,200 – 9,800Diapedesis- when WBC have the ability to squeeze through the intercellular spaces of capillary walls to fight infection in neighboring tissues.Leukocytes2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system
7Leukocytes Agranulocytes Granulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLeukocytes2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system
8Thrombocytes Smallest of solid components of blood Synthesized in red marrowNot cells, composed of fragments of megakaryocytesNecessary for the initiation of the blood clotting processThrombocytes2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system
9Types of White Cells… Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Lymphocytes MonocytesGranuloccyteformed in thebone marrowPhagocytizebacteriaGranulocyteFormed in theIncrease innumbers inallergic conditions,malaria and inworm infestation.Produce heparinan anitcoagulantCount increasesduring chronicinflammation andduring healingfrom infection.Agranulocyte absence of cytoplasmic granules formed in lymph glands, nodes and bone marrow.B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte Protect against cancer cells.Assist inphagocytosisleave bloodvessels andattach themselvesto tissues, duringinfection they helpto wall off andisolate the infectedareaAgranulocyte
10Life Span of Blood cells 2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system
11Phagocytosis – process when white cells surround engulf, and digest harmful bacteria.
13Start Pus produced a combination of dead tissue, dead and living bacteria, dead leukocytes and plasmaBody’s reaction to chemical or physical trauma.Histamine increases the blood flow to the injured area.Pathogenic disease producing microorganisms can cause inflammation.Symptoms – redness, local heat, swelling and painInflammationWhy? Bacterial toxins, increase blood flow, collection of plasma in tissues – edema.
15Inflammation Cont. Abscess Pus-filled cavity below the epidermis. PyrexiaIncrease in body temperature by the hypothalamus in response to pathogenic invasionLeukocytosisIncrease in the number of white cells in response to infectionLeukopeniaDecrease in number of white cells due to chemotherapy or radiation
18Hematology BM#2 Questions 1. Name and describe the five different types of what blood cells.2. Draw a picture for each white blood cell with their job for your body.For example if they eat the bacteria draw a big mouth as the WBC and a bacteria inside.3. What is inflammation? Describe a time when you had an inflammation.4. List the process of coagulation.Remember to copy the words from the bubble map in color and color the pictures.Hematology BM#2 Questions