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Catalyst: (Top of page 72) What are the four main components in your blood? AgendaCatalyst Quiz and MELCon return Blood Handout Objective Identify the.

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1 Catalyst: (Top of page 72) What are the four main components in your blood? AgendaCatalyst Quiz and MELCon return Blood Handout Objective Identify the different components of blood Identify the different components of blood

2 Unit 2 - Homeostasis

3 Homeostasis Homeo- means similar Homeo- means similar Stasis- means balance Stasis- means balance Homeostasis – Is the internal balance maintained by an organism Homeostasis – Is the internal balance maintained by an organism

4 Homeostasis Each cell is responsible for maintaining internal balance. Each cell is responsible for maintaining internal balance. What types of things does your body need to keep in balance? What types of things does your body need to keep in balance? Hydration (water), Blood Sugar, salts, temperature, pH…..to name just a few Hydration (water), Blood Sugar, salts, temperature, pH…..to name just a few

5 Homeostasis The nutrients you absorb through your food have to get distributed throughout your body The nutrients you absorb through your food have to get distributed throughout your body How can the cells on the top of my head maintain the same homeostasis as the cells on the bottom of my feet? How can the cells on the top of my head maintain the same homeostasis as the cells on the bottom of my feet? Your body is a connected system with BLOOD being at the center of it all Your body is a connected system with BLOOD being at the center of it all

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8 Blood- how much How much blood do you have in your body? How much blood do you have in your body? It depends on your size It depends on your size A 150lb man has ~8pints (5.2L) A 150lb man has ~8pints (5.2L) A 110lb woman has ~5 pints (3.3L) A 110lb woman has ~5 pints (3.3L) Average woman has 6-7 pints (4-4.5L) Average woman has 6-7 pints (4-4.5L) Average man has over 7 pints ( 4.5-5.5L) Average man has over 7 pints ( 4.5-5.5L)

9 Catalyst: Where is blood made in your body? AgendaCatalyst Components of blood Types of blood vessels CapillariesObjective Identify the four components of blood and their functions Identify the four components of blood and their functions Identify the three types of blood vessels and how they distribute blood throughout your body Identify the three types of blood vessels and how they distribute blood throughout your body

10 Blood- How is it made? Blood is made in your bones… Blood is made in your bones… What? I thought bones were solid? How can they make a liquid? What? I thought bones were solid? How can they make a liquid? In the Bone Marrow In the Bone Marrow

11 Bone Marrow Transplants People with blood disorders and cancers of the blood like leukemia will often need bone marrow transplants.

12 Blood- What’s in it? Red blood cells Red blood cells White blood cells White blood cells Platelets Platelets Plasma Plasma

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14 Catalyst: If blood is made in your bone marrow what does your heart do? Reminders: Lab reports are due to me by 3:45pm or they are LATE. Please email me barichter1@cps.edu your report if you are unable to print it (emergencies ONLY). Lab reports are due to me by 3:45pm or they are LATE. Please email me barichter1@cps.edu your report if you are unable to print it (emergencies ONLY). barichter1@cps.edu Please start bringing your book to class every day. Please start bringing your book to class every day.

15 Agenda Catalyst & Reminders Blood Vessels Heart Making Exchanges in the body Objectives: Identify the three types of blood vessels Identify the three types of blood vessels Identify the path blood takes throughout the human body Identify the path blood takes throughout the human body

16 Blood Videos http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbo dy/cardiovascular/Video/CapillaryVideo.htm http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbo dy/cardiovascular/Video/CapillaryVideo.htm http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbo dy/cardiovascular/Video/CapillaryVideo.htm http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/humanbo dy/cardiovascular/Video/CapillaryVideo.htm

17 Types of blood vessels ______________- large blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood from the heart & lungs throughout the body ______________- large blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood from the heart & lungs throughout the body ______________- small blood vessels that allow for the diffusion of molecules from the blood into cells. (molecules like Oxygen, salts, sugars and small proteins) ______________- small blood vessels that allow for the diffusion of molecules from the blood into cells. (molecules like Oxygen, salts, sugars and small proteins) ______________- larger blood vessels that carry blood and cell waste products back to the heart and lungs. ______________- larger blood vessels that carry blood and cell waste products back to the heart and lungs.

18 How blood vessels connect

19 Capillaries Why would blood slow down when it enters a capillary? (find 2 reasons) Why would blood slow down when it enters a capillary? (find 2 reasons) Red blood cells go through capillaries SINGLE FILE Red blood cells go through capillaries SINGLE FILE Capillaries are ONE CELL LAYER THICK Capillaries are ONE CELL LAYER THICK Capillaries facilitate the exchange of wastes, nutrients, gases and hormones between the blood and body cells. Capillaries facilitate the exchange of wastes, nutrients, gases and hormones between the blood and body cells. Change in pressure between the capillary and the tissue allow for diffusion Change in pressure between the capillary and the tissue allow for diffusion Capillaries are so small and so abundant that cells are never more than 1/4000 of an inch from a capillary. (less than the thickness of your finger nail. Capillaries are so small and so abundant that cells are never more than 1/4000 of an inch from a capillary. (less than the thickness of your finger nail.

20 The Heart If blood is made in bone marrow then what does your heart do? If blood is made in bone marrow then what does your heart do? About the size of your fist About the size of your fist Is a large muscle that pumps the blood around your body. Is a large muscle that pumps the blood around your body. Beats ~100,000/day ~ 35,000,000/year Beats ~100,000/day ~ 35,000,000/year Has four chambers Has four chambers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= RzscxSavKp8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= RzscxSavKp8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= RzscxSavKp8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= RzscxSavKp8 When the heart contracts it creates pressure that moves your blood When the heart contracts it creates pressure that moves your blood

21 Catalyst: What types of molecules get exchanged between the blood and your lungs? Agenda Homework review Types of exchanges The Breath of Life Objectives: SWBAT Identify the three main types of blood vessels Identify the three main types of blood vessels Describe the types of molecular exchanges that happen between the blood and body tissues. Describe the types of molecular exchanges that happen between the blood and body tissues.

22 Pop Quiz (you can use your notes) Pop Quiz (you can use your notes) Use the following words to fill in the sentences : diffusion, Carbon dioxide, oxygen, veins, capillaries, arteries, wastes. Use the following words to fill in the sentences : diffusion, Carbon dioxide, oxygen, veins, capillaries, arteries, wastes. __________- rich blood comes from the lungs and goes into the left side of the heart. __________- rich blood comes from the lungs and goes into the left side of the heart. Blood gets carried away from your heart by ______________. (___________= away) Blood gets carried away from your heart by ______________. (___________= away) From there blood goes into the smallest blood vessels called_______________. From there blood goes into the smallest blood vessels called_______________. __________________of oxygen and other nutrients takes place in the capillaries. __________________of oxygen and other nutrients takes place in the capillaries. After that the cells diffuse _____________like _________________ and it gets picked up by the red blood cell. After that the cells diffuse _____________like _________________ and it gets picked up by the red blood cell. Blood travels back toward the heart in __________________. The whole process repeats Blood travels back toward the heart in __________________. The whole process repeats Oxygen Arteries Capillaries Diffusion Wastes Carbon dioxide Veins

23 Tracing the Blood Pg. 226 The blood starts in the capillaries of the toe. The blood starts in the capillaries of the toe. The red blood cell moves into a vein up the left leg, that brings it back to the heart and lungs. The red blood cell moves into a vein up the left leg, that brings it back to the heart and lungs. Enters the right side of the heart gets pumped into the lungs Enters the right side of the heart gets pumped into the lungs The blood enters the left side of the heart and gets pumped out into an artery. The blood enters the left side of the heart and gets pumped out into an artery. It travels in an artery down the right leg. It travels in an artery down the right leg. The artery branches into smaller capillaries that bring the red blood cell to the other toe. The artery branches into smaller capillaries that bring the red blood cell to the other toe.

24 Catalyst: (NB pg. 74 What types of exchange are made between the blood and the kidneys? AgendaCatalyst Making exchanges Gas exchange system Objectives: SWBAT Explain how diffusion is used to exchange oxygen and CO 2 in the gas exchange system. Explain how diffusion is used to exchange oxygen and CO 2 in the gas exchange system.

25 Making Exchanges Pg. 224-226 & pg 166 Tissues of the toe Tissues of the kidneys Tissues of the lungs Tissues of the intestines Tissues of the Liver Types of exchanges with the blood Red Blood Cells diffuse oxygen into tissues Toe cells diffuse CO 2 into red blood cell Red blood cells collect oxygen in lungs and release CO 2 that was collected from cells throughout the body Kidneys filter out excess water, salts and Nitrogen based wastes (urea) from blood Intestine tissues release, sugar, salts, fats and proteins into the blood Liver filters out toxins from the blood like alcohol and other harmful chemicals

26 Gas Exchange System (Respiratory System) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc1YtXc_84A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc1YtXc_84A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc1YtXc_84A

27 Your lungs

28 Alveoli

29 Asthma

30 Smoking causes PERMINENT damage to Alveoli

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32 Breath of life Pg. 236-239 Pg. 236-239 Please READ silently Please READ silently Take NOTES (notebook pg. 75) Take NOTES (notebook pg. 75) ANSWER QUESTIONS 1- 8 (notebook pg. 78) ANSWER QUESTIONS 1- 8 (notebook pg. 78)

33 Catalyst: What is the role of the Catalyst: What is the role of the alveoli in gas exchange? Please draw the following image into your notes: Please draw the following image into your notes:

34 AgendaCatalyst Homework review Stepping up the Pace lab HW: Answer questions 8-12 from lab sheet Objectives SWBAT Follow simple experimental procedures Follow simple experimental procedures Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes

35 The Breath of Life Homework Review 1. 1.The gas exchange system; nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphram. 2. 2.Nose  trachea  vocal cords  bronchial tubes  lungs  alveoli 3. 3.alveoli 4. 4.Increases the amount of oxygen that can move into the body’s internal environment and the carbon dioxide that can move out. 5. 5.The oxygen diffuses across the alveolar membranes 6. 6.Hemoglobin is a special protein that is found on a red blood cell. It allows Oxygen (O 2 ) from the atmosphere to bond to the red blood cell. 7. 7.When you exercise your cells release more carbon dioxide. Blood becomes acidic in the presence of carbon dioxide. Nerves react to the increased acidity and send a message to the respiratory centers to increase your breathing rate.

36 Catalyst: What is the control group for the ‘stepping up the pace’ experiment? AgendaCatalyst HW Review LabObjectives Follow simple experimental procedures Follow simple experimental procedures Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes

37 Stepping up the Pace Lab Questions 8-12 Homework Review 8. What is the most appropriate independent variable for this experiment? (what are we changing from tril to trial?) D-Intensity of exercise 9. What is the most appropriate dependent variable for this experiment? (what are we measuring?) A- Heart rate (pulse) 10. What would be the most appropriate hypothesis for this experiment? (If…independent variable…then…dependent variable) D- If a person exercises with increasing intensity, then their heart rate will increase and will take longer to return to normal.

38 11. What is the most appropriate control for this experiment? (what is the ‘normal condition’ we can use to compare?) A- Participants resting pulse rate 12. What are the controlled variables that would need to stay constant during the experiment? (circle all that apply) a. Time spent exercising b. Intensity of exercise c. height of step Stepping up the Pace Lab Questions 8-12 Homework Review

39 Stepping Up the Pace Lab Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN) Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN) After exercise, participants NEVER STOP taking their pulse! After exercise, participants NEVER STOP taking their pulse! Write down your pulse every min! Write down your pulse every min! Exercise NumberExercise Intensity Exercise 1 One step (up and down) every 6 sec for 1 min Exercise 2 One step (up and down) every 3 sec for 1 min Exercise 3 One step (up and down) every 1 sec for 1 min

40 Catalyst: What is the role of the Catalyst: What is the role of the alveoli in gas exchange? Please draw the following image into your notes: Please draw the following image into your notes:

41 Catalyst: What do you expect to happen to a persons pulse and respiratory rate when they exercise? AgendaCatalystPre-Lab Stepping Up the Pace Lab Objectives Follow simple experimental procedures Follow simple experimental procedures Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes Collect and record data to examine how the cardiovascular system responds to environmental changes

42 Breath of Life Questions Revisited Homework Review

43 Stepping Up the Pace Lab Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups Find 3 desks to brace against a lab table for the step-ups All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME All three participants exercise at the SAME TIME Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN) Research director is responsible for calling out when to step (YOU WILL HAVE TO BE ABLE TO COUNT BY 6’S AND 3’S FOR ONE MIN) After exercise, participants NEVER STOP taking their pulse! After exercise, participants NEVER STOP taking their pulse! Write down your pulse every min! Write down your pulse every min! Exercise NumberExercise Intensity Exercise 1 One step (up and down) every 6 sec for 1 min Exercise 2 One step (up and down) every 3 sec for 1 min Exercise 3 One step (up and down) every 1 sec for 1 min

44 Homework Answer questions 8-12 on your lab sheet Answer questions 8-12 on your lab sheet

45 AgendaCatalyst Homework Review Graphing & Analysis Objective SWBAT Graph and analyze data from the ‘Stepping Up the Pace Lab” Graph and analyze data from the ‘Stepping Up the Pace Lab” Write a conclusion using data based evidence. Write a conclusion using data based evidence. Catalyst: What is Homeostasis? How was your body maintaining homeostasis in the lab?

46 If you do NOT have data Use mine… PersonExerciseResting Pulse Immedi ately after 1 min2min3min4min5min Richter1881331159087 2 1351109588 3 130108908786 Adams165118100807065 2 1201089065 3 125988065 Malink ovich 1721008073 2 1107873 3 1108173

47 Analysis 1. 1.Explain the purpose behind increasing the intensity of the exercise between trials. 2. 2.Which participant had the largest increase in pulse rate during exercise 3? (IOD 501) 3. 3.Which participant had the longest recovery time after exercise 3? (IOD 501) 4. 4. Which participant had the greatest difference between their resting pulse rate and their maximum pulse rate? (IOD 401) 5. 5.Which participant had the smallest difference between their resting pulse and their maximum pulse rate after exercising? (IOD401)

48 Conclusion Main Idea - Restate your hypothesis. Did you support or reject your hypothesis? Evidence- Use three pieces of evidence/data (exercise #, participant name, (#)pulse rate, unit) to support your claims from the M- section above Link- Explain your data in terms of how the circulatory and respiratory system work together to maintain homeostasis. Conclusion- Discuss how body systems work together to maintain homeostasis when affected by stimuli from the environment.

49 Homework Read “Homeostasis” pg. 229-231 Read “Homeostasis” pg. 229-231 Answer questions 1-7 in your NOTEBOOK Answer questions 1-7 in your NOTEBOOK

50 Catalyst: What is Homeostasis? How was your body maintaining homeostasis in the lab? AgendaCatalyst Homeostasis reading Review and reflect Objectives SWBAT Write a conclusion based on data evidence. Write a conclusion based on data evidence. Explain how homeostasis is maintained by body systems. Explain how homeostasis is maintained by body systems.

51 Connecting the lab to Homeostasis… With your lab group With your lab group Read “Homeostasis” pg. 229-231 Read “Homeostasis” pg. 229-231 Answer questions 1-7 in your NOTEBOOK Answer questions 1-7 in your NOTEBOOK

52 Homeostasis Review 1.What is homeostasis? 2.How do complex organisms maintain homeostasis? 3.How do simple organisms maintain homeostasis? 4.What are two things required to maintain homeostasis? 5.What is stimulus? (plural = stimuli) 6.How does the body respond to stimulus, such as cold temperature? 7.What are homeostasis and stimuli and why are they important?

53 Conclusions Take a moment to think about what was just discussed & review the last section of your conclusion from your lab. Take a moment to think about what was just discussed & review the last section of your conclusion from your lab. The prompt asked you too: Discuss how body systems work together to maintain homeostasis when affected by stimuli from the environment. Add 3-4 sentences that show your enhanced understanding after reading and discussing stimuli. Add 3-4 sentences that show your enhanced understanding after reading and discussing stimuli.

54 pg. 233-235 Define: Define: Feed Back System Feed Back System Positive Feedback Systems Positive Feedback Systems Find an example from the text Find an example from the text Negative Feedback Systems Negative Feedback Systems Find an example from the text Find an example from the text

55 Breath of Life recap… 7. Describe the feedback system that is involved in increasing your breathing rate when you’re exercising. When you exercise your cells release more carbon dioxide. Blood becomes acidic in the presence of carbon dioxide. Nerves react to the increased acidity and send a message to the respiratory centers to increase your breathing rate.

56 Catalysts: (next open page) What will happen to you if your homeostasis is thrown out of balance? Agenda Catalyst Feedback systems Objectives SWBAT Identify negative feedback systems Use an example a negative feedback system in the human body

57 Principles of Homeostasis & Feedback Mechanisms... THE MAINTENANCE OF STATIC OR CONSTANT CONDITIONS IN THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT... External Environment Internal Environment

58 External Environment Internal Environment Homeostasis is about staying the same... but... things don’t stay the same... They CHANGE! Conditions in the external environment change constantly... Internal Environment CANNOT change!

59 Homeostasis is about staying alive!staying alive! For proper functioning, the the fluids around the cells (“interstitial fluid”) must remain close to their best (optimal) conditions. An organism is in homeostasis when the internal environment has the optimal concentration of: Gases Nutrients Ions & water Temperature Is not invaded by pathogens (anything that can make you sick. Viruses, bacteria, etc…)

60 Maintaining Homeostasis Organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis through: hormonal and nervous mechanisms The nervous system is the bodies ‘master control system’ As previously stated….. The body must protect itself against pathogens regulate respiratory gases maintain fluid and salt balance regulate energy and nutrient supply maintain a constant body temperature All these must be coordinated and appropriate responses made to incoming stimuli.

61 Homeostasis operates by means of control systems Sensory Receptors (eye, ear, nerves pick up signals) Control Center (brain) Effectors (what responds)

62 Homeostasis is characterized by Negative Feedback 1.Response is negative (opposite) to the beginning stimulus 1.The control system starts a series of changes that return the factor toward the optimal value 1.Thus maintaining homeostasis.

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64 Oxygen must be delivered to all cells and carbon dioxide (a waste product of cellular respiration) must be removed. Breathing (inhalation and exhalation) brings in oxygen and expels CO 2. The rate of breathing is varied according to the oxygen requirement. Both gases are transported around the body in the blood; the oxygen mostly bound to hemoglobin.

65 All of us are under constant attack from pathogens (disease causing organisms). The body has a number of mechanisms that help to prevent the entry of pathogens and limit the damage they cause if they do enter the body. The skin, the digestive system and the immune system are all involved in limiting damage.

66 Food and drink must be taken in to maintain the body's energy supplies. Steady levels of energy (as glucose) is available to cells through hormonal regulation of blood sugar levels. Insulin, released by the endocrine cells of the pancreas, causes cells to take up glucose after a meal. Glucagon causes the release of glucose from the liver.

67 Damage to body tissues triggers the inflammatory response. There is pain, swelling, redness, and heat. Phagocytes and other white blood cells move to the injury site. The inflammatory response is started (and ended) by chemical signals (e.g. from histamine and prostaglandins) released when tissue is damaged.

68 The levels of water and ions in the body are maintained mainly by the kidneys, although the skin is also important. Osmo-receptors monitor the fluid and ion levels of the blood and bring about the release of regulatory hormones. the kidneys regulate reabsorption of water and sodium from blood in response to levels of the hormones ADH and aldosterone.

69 The body is constantly bombarded by stimuli from the environment. The brain sorts these stimuli into those that require a response and those that do not. Responses are coordinated via nervous or hormonal controls. Simple nervous responses (reflexes) act quickly. Hormonal responses take longer to produce a response and the response is more prolonged.

70 Exit ticket! Use an example to explain how negative feedback helps your body to maintain homeostasis! Homework pg. 233-235 Define: Feed Back System Positive Feedback Systems Find an example from the text Negative Feedback Systems Find an example from the text

71 A system exhibiting positive feedback, in response to stimulus, acts to increase the magnitude of the stimulus. That is, "A produces more of B which in turn produces more of A". A vicious cycle! In contrast, a system that responds to a stimulus in a way that reduces its effect is said to exhibit negative feedback. Positive Feedback Systems Alarm or panic can spread by positive feedback among a herd of animals to cause a stampede

72 When you get a cut your body immediately sends a message to send more blood platelets to the area The body keeps sending the message until the area is flooded with platelets A clot forms The bleeding stops

73 The normal heart pumps about 5 L of blood/mi n Volumeof blood (L) W ith the withdrawal of 2L of blood the heart becomes progressively less effective in terms of its pumping effectiveness. This leads to less blood being delivered to tissues which in turn further weakens the heart making it even less able to effectively pump... A vicious cycle or positive feedback that without intervention quickly leads to eternity. N ote that with only 1L of blood loss the heart is capable of returning (via negative feedback) to normal function.

74 On a ½ sheet of paper (will get turned in!... Make your own story 1.Identify the stimulus (cause) 2.Create a story that demonstrates positive feedback 3.Create a story that demonstrates negative feedback system. Exit Ticket Or Homework!

75 Catalyst: What is negative feedback? AgendaCatalyst Finish feedback loops Skills Practice with Homeostasis Lab report return Objective Use an example to define negative and positive feed back loops Use an example to define negative and positive feed back loops Practice college readiness standards focused around experiments that investigate homeostasis. Practice college readiness standards focused around experiments that investigate homeostasis.

76 pg. 233-236 Define: Define: Feed Back System Feed Back System Positive Feedback Systems Positive Feedback Systems Find an example from the text Find an example from the text Negative Feedback Systems Negative Feedback Systems Find an example from the text Find an example from the text

77 Catalyst: Think of the lab from last week. Why would you measure a persons respiratory and pulse rate before they exercise? AgendaCatalyst Review for test on WEDNESDAY! Objectives SWBAT Explain how the cardiovascular system uses diffusion to help maintain homeostasis. Explain how the cardiovascular system uses diffusion to help maintain homeostasis.

78 Skills worksheet (3 rd period only) Homework review Q1- rates were measured so that a baseline could be established and a control used to allow for data to be compared. Q1- rates were measured so that a baseline could be established and a control used to allow for data to be compared. Combine the data onto one graph Combine the data onto one graph Rate of exercise- day 1 slow exercise, day 2 fast exercise. Rate of exercise- day 1 slow exercise, day 2 fast exercise. The resting pulse and respiratory rate of the participants The resting pulse and respiratory rate of the participants Type of machine used for the exercise (tredmill vs. cycle) Type of machine used for the exercise (tredmill vs. cycle)


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