2Learning Objectives Revise the names of bones Understand the functions of boneList the types of boneExplain the structure of bone
3Name the bonesFrom the skeleton diagram, label the bones indicated using the correct terminology
4Functions of Bone The functions of the skeleton and bone tissue are: 1. Support – provide a framework for attachment e.g. muscle to bone2. Protection – protect the internal organs e.g. ribs protect the lungs3. Movement – when muscles contract they pull on bones and produce movement4. Mineral storage – bones they store calcium and phosphorous5. Blood cell production – occurs within the red bone marrow6. Storage of energy – yellow marrow is a stored source of lipids in the bones
5Functions of the skeletal system us5c&list=PLVmap4eL- 2_itkKaX4NkGO9DzKcMCvanR&index=1
6Types of BoneShort Bones – often cube shaped with the same width and length e.g. wrist, ankle, fingers and toesLong Bones – are longer than they are wide e.g. femur, phalanges and humerusFlat Bones – provide flat area for muscle attachment e.g. scapula, ribs, sternum and skullIrregular Bones – have no regular shape characteristics e.g. vertebra and facial bonesSesamoid Bones – small bones developed in tendons around some joints e.g. patella (knee)
9Structure of Bone Bones are strong and hard, and come in many shapes. Bones have a hard outer layer called the compact bone. This outer layer makes up about 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton. This layer gives the bone its white color.The inside of the bone is called cancellous or spongy bone. Although the cancellous tissue makes up only remaining 20% of the total bone mass, it is light and porous, and makes up most of the bone material. The cancellous tissue also has space for blood vessels and marrow.
10Bone marrow, in the middle of long bones, produces blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis. New red and white blood cells are produced every day to maintain constant blood levels.Cartilage- firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints. A flexible kind of cartilage makes up other parts of the body, such as the larynx and the outside parts of the ears