Presentation on theme: "Bone Histology Martini Chapter 6 Lab Activity 7. Divisions of skeletal system Axial skeleton: in the vertical axis of the body. Consists of the skull,"— Presentation transcript:
Bone Histology Martini Chapter 6 Lab Activity 7
Divisions of skeletal system Axial skeleton: in the vertical axis of the body. Consists of the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column ribs and sternum. Appendicular skeleton: skeleton attached to the axial skeleton
Bone features Ones have many surface features that have specific names. Grouped by projections, depressions, or holes in the bone. Some projections: Some articulate with other bones Are attachment sites MarkingDescriptionExample HeadBony expansion carried on a narrow neck Femur CondyleRounded articular projection Condyle of mandible FacetSmooth, nearly flat articular surface Facet of ribs RamusArmlike bar of bone Ramus of mandible Projections for Muscle & Ligament Attachment ProcessAny bony prominence Trochan ter Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process Femur Tuberosi ty Large, rounded projection; may be roughened Tibia, ischia TubercleSmall, rounded projection or process Adductor tubercle of femur (distal end) CrestNarrow ridge of bone; usually prominent Anterior crest of tibia LineNarrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest Intertrochant eric line SpineSharp, slender, often pointed projection Spinous process of vertebra Epicond yle Raised area on or above a condyle Medial epicondyle of femur
Bone 4 Organic and inorganic material The organic portion is composed mostly of cells and collagenous fibers (1/3 volume by weight) The inorganic portion consists mainly of hydroxyapatite. Calcium salts, which contribute hardness and rigidity. Make bones as strong as steel or reinforced concrete. intercellular matrix of bone tissue is arranged in multiple layers called lamellae
Classification of Bones by Shape 5 Long bones: longer than they are wide (e.g., humerus, metacarpals ) Consists of a shaft (diaphysis) plus 2 expanded ends (epiphysis).
Features of Long bones 6 Hyaline cartilage Covers joint surface of epiphysis Cushions opposing bone ends Absorb stress
Features of Long Bones 7 Diaphysis: shaft forms the long axis of the bone Wall of compact bone surrounding a medullary (marrow) cavity Epiphyses: expanded bone ends Articulates with another bone Exterior made of a thin layer of compact bone Interior made of spongy bone
Bone Marrow 9 Marrow Netlike mass of connective tissue that fills the spaces of bone Medullary cavities of long bones Irregular spaces of spongy bone
Bone Tissues Red Marrow 10 Hemopoietic tissue Formation of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets In infants Found in the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone In adults Found in the diploë of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus
Bone Tissues Yellow Marrow 11 As we age, the bone marrow is replaced by fat stores Red becomes yellow marrow Inactive in blood cell production Functions in shock absorption
Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones 12 Thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside with endosteum- covered spongy bone on the inside Have no diaphysis or epiphyses Contain bone marrow between the trabeculae
Bone Membranes 13 Periosteum: Double-layered protective membrane Outer fibrous layer is dense irregular connective tissue Inner osteogenic layer is composed of osteoblasts and osteoclasts Richly supplied with nerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels, which enter the bone via nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers (strands of collagen)
Bone Membranes 14 Endosteum: Delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone in the marrow cavities and lines the canals that pass through compact bone. Lines the medullary cavity Contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Classification of Bones by Shape 15 Short bones Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle Sesamoid bones Bones that form within tendons (e.g., patella)
Classification of Bones by Shape 16 Flat bones: Thin, flattened, and a bit curved (e.g., sternum, and most skull bones) Sternum
Classification of Bones by Shape 17 Irregular bones: bones with complicated shapes (e.g., vertebrae and hip bones) Sphenoid Bone
Classification of Bones by Shape 18 Wormian or sutural bones: Tiny bones between cranial bones. Vary in number and location in different people
Bone Tissue: Compact Bone 19 Bones are composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue Compact bone is found where great strength is needed. It makes up the external surfaces of all bones and the shafts of long bones.
Bone Tissues: Spongy Bone 20 Honeycomb of small needle-like pieces called trabeculae. Organized in an open framework Provides considerable strength with reduced weight The open spaces between the trabeculae are filled with bone marrow
21 Note the gross differences between the spongy bone and the compact bone in the above photo. Do you see the trabeculae?
22 Compare compact and spongy bone as viewed with the light microscope
Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone 23 Bone tissue is composed of repeating, circular units called Haversian systems or osteons Osteons are the structural unit of compact bone The substance of compact bone is formed from many osteons cemented together Oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone, and parallel to the forces upon that bone
Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone 24
Haversian System (Osteon) Components 25 Concentric Lamella: Weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen that surround the central canal like rings on a tree Haversian, or central canal: Central channel containing blood vessels and nerves Volkmann’s canals: Channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal
Interstitial Lamellae 26 Interstitial Lamellae that are not part of an osteon They are incomplete lamellae They fill the gaps between forming osteons or are remnants of osteons that have been cut through by bone remodeling
Circumferential Lamellae 27 Circumferential lamellae are deep to the periosteum Extend around the entire circumference of the shaft
28 Concentric lamellae
Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone 29 Spider-shaped osteocytes occupy small cavities known as lacunae at the junctions of the lamellae. Hair like canals called canaliculi connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal. Canaliculi allow the osteocytes to exchange nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals to each other via gap junctions.
Microscopic Structure of Spongy Bone 30 No osteons are present Lamellae are irregularly arranged into plates called trabeculae. Small needle-like pieces of bone Have a lot of open space between them Filled with bone marrow. Trabeculae are interconnected by canaliculi Trabeculae align precisely along lines of stress
Spongy Bone 31 Osteocytes are nourished by diffusion from nearby Haversian canals The osteocytes are connected by canaliculi
Bone Cells 32 Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue, so it consist of cells plus a significant amount of extracellular matrix. Osteoprogenitor Cells (osteogenic cells) Undergo mitosis and become osteoblasts Derived from mesenchyme
Osteoblasts 33 Bone-building cells. Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix. Releases calcium and phosphate ions for production of hydroxyapetite Initiate the process of calcification. Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum Cannot undergo mitosis
Osteoblasts 34 The blue arrows indicate the osteoblasts. The yellow arrows indicate the bone matrix they’ve just secreted.
Osteocytes 35 Mature bone cells derived from Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix Respond to stresses and remodel bone in response to those stresses Maintain daily cellular activities No longer secrete matrix Cannot undergo mitosis Will transform back to an osteoblast when bone remodeling is needed.
Osteocytes 36 Yellow arrows indicate osteocytes: notice how they are surrounded by the pinkish bone matrix. Blue arrow shows an osteoblast in the process of becoming an osteocyte. Green arrow: Osteoclast
Bone Cells Osteoclasts 37 Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes or macrophages (a type of white blood cell). Function in bone resorption (i.e. destruction of bone matrix that is part of normal bone growth, development, maintenance and repair) Breakdown of bone matrix with both acid phosphatase and HCL
Introduction to the Nervous System The functional unit is the neuron These are the cells that carry out the activity of nervous tissue Neuroglia (glial cells) aid neurons
Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)- cranial and spinal nerves, and ganglia
Neuron 3 main parts: Axon Dendrite Cell body (neurosoma) Neuroplasm (cytoplasm) Nissl bodies (RER) Nucleus Axon hillock
Functions of neurons Sensory (afferent): conduct impulses to CNS. Convey info from the external or internal body Motor (efferent) conduct impulses away from CNS Interneurons (association) neurons occur between sensory and motor neurons
Neuron Shapes Classified according to shape Multipolar Bipolar Unipolar (pseudounipolar)
Synapses Neurons transmit information electrochemically along the length of the axon to the synaptic knob. The junction is called the synapse and chemicals called neurotransmitters move across the synaptic cleft
PNS Neuroglia Schwann cells (neurolemmoctye) wrap around the axon, leaving small gaps between successive cells called the nodes of Ranvier. Consist of a lipoprotein called myelin and a series of schwann cells forms the myelin sheath. Allows nerve transmission to jump from node to node, increasing speed called saltatory conduction
Histology of a Nerve
CNS Neuroglia Oligodendrocytes have the same function in the CNS as Schwann in PNS Myelinated nerve fibers appear white so are called white matter
CNS Neuroglia The most common glial cells are the astrocytes. Form blood-brain barrier Nourish neurons Release nerve growth factors among other things.
CNS Neuroglia Microglia are small, phagocytic glial cells. They resemble macrophages as they engulf microbes or damaged tissue
CNS Neuroglia Ependymal cells line the ventricles of the brain and modify the cerebrospinal fluid
Specialized Neurons Pyramidal cells are found in the cerebral cortex of the brain Purkinje cells are common in the cerebellum.