2Journal Entry Match the following organ systems to their functions: Systems - respiratory, muscular, digestive, cardiovascular, and endocrineFunctions- to pump blood, to enable movement, to send out chemical messages, to absorb oxygen, and to break down food
3Objectives 22-1Describe how tissues, organs and organ systems are relatedDiscuss 11 organ systemsAnalyze how organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis
4Body OrganizationHomeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment in the body
5Cells, Tissues and Organs A group of similar cells is a tissue.Your body has different kinds of tissue:EpithelialNervousMuscleConnectiveCardiacSmooth
6Organs Tissues form organs For instance, the stomach organ is made of muscle, connective, nervous, blood, epithelial
7Organ Systems Organs form systems The stomach is an organ in the digestive systemOther organs in the system are the large and small intestine, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the liver and the esophagus
8Body Organ Systems 11 major organ systems Integumentary Muscular SkeletalCardiovascularRespiratoryUrinaryReproductiveNervousDigestiveLymphaticEndocrine
9Integumentary SystemSkin, hair and nails protect the tissue that beneath them
10Muscular SystemThe muscular system works with the skeletal system to help you move
11Skeletal systemThe bones provide a framework to support and protect the body parts
12Cardiovascular System The heart pumps blood through all of your blood vessels.
13Respiratory SystemThe lungs absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
14Urinary SystemThe urinary system removes wastes from the blood and regulates the body fluids
15Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system produces and delivers sperm.
16Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system produces eggs and nourishes and protects the fetus.
17Nervous SystemThe nervous system receives and send electrical messages throughout the body
18Digestive SystemThe digestive system breaks down the food into nutrients that the body can absorb.
19Lymphatic SystemThe lymphatic system returns leaked fluids to blood vessels and helps get rid of bacteria and viruses.
20Endocrine SystemThe glands send out chemical messages. Ovaries and testes are part of this system.
21Journal EntryWhat problems would you face if you did not have bones?
22The Skeletal System Chapter 22-2 Objectives:Identify the major organs of the skeletal systemDescribe the four functions of the bonesDescribe five jointsDiscuss three injuries and two disease that affect bones and joints
23Skeletal SystemBones, cartilage and the connective tissue that holds bones together make up your skeletal system.
24Bones The average adult human has 206 bones. Bones help support and protect parts of your body.They work with muscles so you can move.Bones also help your body maintain homeostasis by storing minerals and making blood cells.
25Bone Structure A bone is made of several different tissues. Bone is made of connective tissue and minerals.These minerals are deposited by living cells called osteoblasts.
26Long BonesLong bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The femur (thigh bone) is a long bone. A long bone has a shaft and two ends.There are also bones in the fingers that are classified as "long bones," even though they are short in length. This is due to the shape of the bones, not the actual size.Long bones contain yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow, which produces blood cells
27Compact Bone TissueThere are two kinds of bone tissue: compact and spongy.If the bone tissue does not have any visible open spaces, it is called compact bone.Compact bone is rigid and dense.Tiny canals within compact bone contain small blood vessels.
28Spongy Bone Tissue Spongy bone tissue has many open spaces. Spongy bone provides most of the strength and support for the bone.
29Bone Marrow Bones contain a soft tissue called marrow. There are two types of marrow.: red and yellow.Red marrow produces both red and white blood cells.Yellow marrow, found in the central cavity of long bones, stores fat.
30Yellow Marrow In children, red marrow fills the center of long bones. This red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow as they become adults.
31Bone GrowthMost bones start out as a flexible tissue called cartilage.As the person grows most of the cartilage is replaced with bone.During childhood, most bones still have growth plates of cartilage that provide a place for bones to continue to grow.
32Cartilage In some places in the body the cartilage is never replaced. Your nose is an example of cartilage.
33Joints A place where two or more bones meet is called a joint. A joint allows your body to move when your muscles contract.Fixed joints allow little or no movement. Much of the skull has fixed joints.
34Types of Joints There are five types of joints: Gliding Ball- and-socketHingePivotFixed
35Gliding JointsGliding joints allow bones in the hand and wrist to glide over one another and give some flexibility to the area.
36Ball- and- Socket Joint Ball and socket joints allow the bones to move freely.Your shoulder is an example of a ball- and -socket joint
37Hinge Joint A hinge joint enables a bone to move up and down. You elbow is an example of a hinge joint
38Ligament Joints are held together by ligaments. Ligaments are strong elastic bands of connective tissue.They connect the bones in a joint.Cartilage covers the ends of many bones to act as a cushion.
39Skeletal System Injuries and Diseases Bones in the skeletal system may be broken or fractured.Joints can also be dislocated.If a ligament is stretched too far, a sprain may occur.Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become less dense. It is caused by age and poor eating habits.A disease that affects the joint is arthritis.
40Journal EntryList at least five parts of your body that you use to drink a glass of water.
41The Muscular System Chapter 22-3 Objectives:List three kinds of muscle tissue.Describe how skeletal muscles move bones.Compare aerobic exercise with resistance exercise.Describe two muscular system injuries.
42Kinds of Muscle There are three kinds of muscle tissue in your body: Smooth found in the digestive tract and blood vesselsCardiac found in the heartSkeletal is attached to your bones for movement
43Movement and TendonsStrands of tough connective tissues , called tendons, connect your skeletal muscles to your bones.When a muscle that connects two bones together gets shorter, the bones are pulled closer to each other.
44Muscles work in PairsYour skeletal muscles work in pairs. One muscles bends and the other of the pair straightens.A flexor, such as a bicep. bends part of your body.An extensor , such as a tricep, straightens part of your body.
45Smooth MuscleSmooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like your intestines and stomach. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. The muscular walls of your intestines contract to push food through your body. Muscles in your bladder wall contract to expel urine from your body. Smooth muscles in a woman's uterus (or womb) help to push babies out of the body during childbirth. The pupillary sphincter muscle in your eye is a smooth muscle that shrinks the size of your pupil.
46Cardiac MuscleYour heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in your heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It works automatically and constantly without ever pausing to rest. Cardiac muscle contracts to squeeze blood out of your heart, and relaxes to fill your heart with blood.
47Resistance Exercise Resistance exercise strengthens skeletal muscles. In resistance exercise people work against the weight of an object.
48Aerobic ExerciseSteady moderately intense activity that raise the heart rate is called aerobic activity.This kind of exercise can strengthen the heart and increases endurance.
49Muscle InjuryA strain is an injury in which a muscle or tendon is overstretched and /or torn. Strains happen when a muscle has not been warmed up or has been worked too hard.People who exercise too much can cause their tendons to become inflamed. This is called tendinitis.Some people take Anabolic steroids to try to increase muscle size. These steroids can cause long term health problems which damage the heart, liver and kidneys. They may also cause bones to stop growing.
51The Integumentary System Chapter 22-4 Objectives:List four functions of skin.Describe the two layers of skin.Describe the structure and function of hair and nails.Describe two kinds of damage that can affect skin.
52The Integumentary System The integumentary system is made up of your skin, hair and nails.
53Why do you need skin?Skin protects you by keeping water in your body and foreign particles out.Skin allow you to touch the outer world.Skin helps regulate body temperature.Skin helps get rid of wastes through sweat.
54MelaninSkin comes in many color. Skin color is determined by melanin. A lot of melanin will make dark skin. Very little melanin will make light skin. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun so it reduces damage that can lead to skin cancer. Skin should always be protected from the sun.
55Layers of SkinSkin is the largest organ of your body. Skin has two main layers: the epidermis and the dermis.The epidermis is the outer most layer of skin.The thicker layer that lies beneath the epidermis is the dermis.
56Structures of the SkinBlood vessels transport substances and help regulate body temperature.Nerve fibers carry messages to and from the brain.Hair follicles in the dermis make hair.Muscle fibers attached to a hair follicle can contract and cause the hair to stand up.Oil glands release oil that keeps hair flexible and water proofs the epidermis.Sweat glands release sweat to cool the body. Sweating is also a way to remove waste materials from the body.
57Epidermis The epidermis is made of epithelial tissue. It is as thick as only two sheets of paper over most of your body.It is thicker on your hands and the soles of your feet.Most of the cells are dead.They are filled with keratin to make the skin tough.
58DermisThe dermis lies beneath the epidermis. The dermis has many fibers make of a protein called collagen.These fibers provide strength. They let the skin bend without tearing.
59Hair and NailsHair and nails are also made of living and dead cells.
60Hair A hair forms at the bottom of a tiny sac called a hair follicle. Older cells get pushed upward. The only living cells in a hair are in the hair follicle. Like skin, the follicle gets its color from melanin.
61Hair Hair protects skin from ultraviolet light. Hair helps keep particles out of your eyes ad nose.In most mammals, it helps regulate body temperature.If the hair follicle contracts the hair stands up.They also trap warm air around your body.
62NailsA nail grows from living cells in the nail root at the base of a nail.New cells forms as the nail grows longer.Nails protect the tips of your fingers and toes.
63Skin InjuriesSkin is often damaged. It can repair itself by forming a blood clot over the cut to stop the bleeding and to stop bacteria from entering.Bacteria will then come to the area to kill bacteria.The damaged cells are replaced throug h division.