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Body Organization and Structure

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Presentation on theme: "Body Organization and Structure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Organization and Structure
P. Lobosco

2 Journal Entry Match the following organ systems to their functions:
Systems - respiratory, muscular, digestive, cardiovascular, and endocrine Functions- to pump blood, to enable movement, to send out chemical messages, to absorb oxygen, and to break down food

3 Objectives 22-1 Describe how tissues, organs and organ systems are related Discuss 11 organ systems Analyze how organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis

4 Body Organization Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment in the body

5 Cells, Tissues and Organs
A group of similar cells is a tissue. Your body has different kinds of tissue: Epithelial Nervous Muscle Connective Cardiac Smooth

6 Organs Tissues form organs
For instance, the stomach organ is made of muscle, connective, nervous, blood, epithelial

7 Organ Systems Organs form systems
The stomach is an organ in the digestive system Other organs in the system are the large and small intestine, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the liver and the esophagus

8 Body Organ Systems 11 major organ systems Integumentary Muscular
Skeletal Cardiovascular Respiratory Urinary Reproductive Nervous Digestive Lymphatic Endocrine

9 Integumentary System Skin, hair and nails protect the tissue that beneath them

10 Muscular System The muscular system works with the skeletal system to help you move

11 Skeletal system The bones provide a framework to support and protect the body parts

12 Cardiovascular System
The heart pumps blood through all of your blood vessels.

13 Respiratory System The lungs absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

14 Urinary System The urinary system removes wastes from the blood and regulates the body fluids

15 Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive system produces and delivers sperm.

16 Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system produces eggs and nourishes and protects the fetus.

17 Nervous System The nervous system receives and send electrical messages throughout the body

18 Digestive System The digestive system breaks down the food into nutrients that the body can absorb.

19 Lymphatic System The lymphatic system returns leaked fluids to blood vessels and helps get rid of bacteria and viruses.

20 Endocrine System The glands send out chemical messages. Ovaries and testes are part of this system.

21 Journal Entry What problems would you face if you did not have bones?

22 The Skeletal System Chapter 22-2
Objectives: Identify the major organs of the skeletal system Describe the four functions of the bones Describe five joints Discuss three injuries and two disease that affect bones and joints

23 Skeletal System Bones, cartilage and the connective tissue that holds bones together make up your skeletal system.

24 Bones The average adult human has 206 bones.
Bones help support and protect parts of your body. They work with muscles so you can move. Bones also help your body maintain homeostasis by storing minerals and making blood cells.

25 Bone Structure A bone is made of several different tissues.
Bone is made of connective tissue and minerals. These minerals are deposited by living cells called osteoblasts.

26 Long Bones Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The femur (thigh bone) is a long bone. A long bone has a shaft and two ends. There are also bones in the fingers that are classified as "long bones," even though they are short in length. This is due to the shape of the bones, not the actual size. Long bones contain yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow, which produces blood cells

27 Compact Bone Tissue There are two kinds of bone tissue: compact and spongy. If the bone tissue does not have any visible open spaces, it is called compact bone. Compact bone is rigid and dense. Tiny canals within compact bone contain small blood vessels.

28 Spongy Bone Tissue Spongy bone tissue has many open spaces.
Spongy bone provides most of the strength and support for the bone.

29 Bone Marrow Bones contain a soft tissue called marrow.
There are two types of marrow.: red and yellow. Red marrow produces both red and white blood cells. Yellow marrow, found in the central cavity of long bones, stores fat.

30 Yellow Marrow In children, red marrow fills the center of long bones.
This red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow as they become adults.

31 Bone Growth Most bones start out as a flexible tissue called cartilage. As the person grows most of the cartilage is replaced with bone. During childhood, most bones still have growth plates of cartilage that provide a place for bones to continue to grow.

32 Cartilage In some places in the body the cartilage is never replaced.
Your nose is an example of cartilage.

33 Joints A place where two or more bones meet is called a joint.
A joint allows your body to move when your muscles contract. Fixed joints allow little or no movement. Much of the skull has fixed joints.

34 Types of Joints There are five types of joints: Gliding
Ball- and-socket Hinge Pivot Fixed

35 Gliding Joints Gliding joints allow bones in the hand and wrist to glide over one another and give some flexibility to the area.

36 Ball- and- Socket Joint
Ball and socket joints allow the bones to move freely. Your shoulder is an example of a ball- and -socket joint

37 Hinge Joint A hinge joint enables a bone to move up and down.
You elbow is an example of a hinge joint

38 Ligament Joints are held together by ligaments.
Ligaments are strong elastic bands of connective tissue. They connect the bones in a joint. Cartilage covers the ends of many bones to act as a cushion.

39 Skeletal System Injuries and Diseases
Bones in the skeletal system may be broken or fractured. Joints can also be dislocated. If a ligament is stretched too far, a sprain may occur. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become less dense. It is caused by age and poor eating habits. A disease that affects the joint is arthritis.

40 Journal Entry List at least five parts of your body that you use to drink a glass of water.

41 The Muscular System Chapter 22-3
Objectives: List three kinds of muscle tissue. Describe how skeletal muscles move bones. Compare aerobic exercise with resistance exercise. Describe two muscular system injuries.

42 Kinds of Muscle There are three kinds of muscle tissue in your body:
Smooth found in the digestive tract and blood vessels Cardiac found in the heart Skeletal is attached to your bones for movement

43 Movement and Tendons Strands of tough connective tissues , called tendons, connect your skeletal muscles to your bones. When a muscle that connects two bones together gets shorter, the bones are pulled closer to each other.

44 Muscles work in Pairs Your skeletal muscles work in pairs. One muscles bends and the other of the pair straightens. A flexor, such as a bicep. bends part of your body. An extensor , such as a tricep, straightens part of your body.

45 Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs like your intestines and stomach. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body. The muscular walls of your intestines contract to push food through your body. Muscles in your bladder wall contract to expel urine from your body. Smooth muscles in a woman's uterus (or womb) help to push babies out of the body during childbirth. The pupillary sphincter muscle in your eye is a smooth muscle that shrinks the size of your pupil.

46 Cardiac Muscle Your heart is made of cardiac muscle. This type of muscle only exists in your heart. Unlike other types of muscle, cardiac muscle never gets tired. It works automatically and constantly without ever pausing to rest. Cardiac muscle contracts to squeeze blood out of your heart, and relaxes to fill your heart with blood.

47 Resistance Exercise Resistance exercise strengthens skeletal muscles.
In resistance exercise people work against the weight of an object.

48 Aerobic Exercise Steady moderately intense activity that raise the heart rate is called aerobic activity. This kind of exercise can strengthen the heart and increases endurance.

49 Muscle Injury A strain is an injury in which a muscle or tendon is overstretched and /or torn. Strains happen when a muscle has not been warmed up or has been worked too hard. People who exercise too much can cause their tendons to become inflamed. This is called tendinitis. Some people take Anabolic steroids to try to increase muscle size. These steroids can cause long term health problems which damage the heart, liver and kidneys. They may also cause bones to stop growing.

50 Journal Entry When do you see dogs panting?

51 The Integumentary System Chapter 22-4
Objectives: List four functions of skin. Describe the two layers of skin. Describe the structure and function of hair and nails. Describe two kinds of damage that can affect skin.

52 The Integumentary System
The integumentary system is made up of your skin, hair and nails.

53 Why do you need skin? Skin protects you by keeping water in your body and foreign particles out. Skin allow you to touch the outer world. Skin helps regulate body temperature. Skin helps get rid of wastes through sweat.

54 Melanin Skin comes in many color. Skin color is determined by melanin. A lot of melanin will make dark skin. Very little melanin will make light skin. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun so it reduces damage that can lead to skin cancer. Skin should always be protected from the sun.

55 Layers of Skin Skin is the largest organ of your body. Skin has two main layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outer most layer of skin. The thicker layer that lies beneath the epidermis is the dermis.

56 Structures of the Skin Blood vessels transport substances and help regulate body temperature. Nerve fibers carry messages to and from the brain. Hair follicles in the dermis make hair. Muscle fibers attached to a hair follicle can contract and cause the hair to stand up. Oil glands release oil that keeps hair flexible and water proofs the epidermis. Sweat glands release sweat to cool the body. Sweating is also a way to remove waste materials from the body.

57 Epidermis The epidermis is made of epithelial tissue.
It is as thick as only two sheets of paper over most of your body. It is thicker on your hands and the soles of your feet. Most of the cells are dead. They are filled with keratin to make the skin tough.

58 Dermis The dermis lies beneath the epidermis. The dermis has many fibers make of a protein called collagen. These fibers provide strength. They let the skin bend without tearing.

59 Hair and Nails Hair and nails are also made of living and dead cells.

60 Hair A hair forms at the bottom of a tiny sac called a hair follicle.
Older cells get pushed upward. The only living cells in a hair are in the hair follicle. Like skin, the follicle gets its color from melanin.

61 Hair Hair protects skin from ultraviolet light.
Hair helps keep particles out of your eyes ad nose. In most mammals, it helps regulate body temperature. If the hair follicle contracts the hair stands up. They also trap warm air around your body.

62 Nails A nail grows from living cells in the nail root at the base of a nail. New cells forms as the nail grows longer. Nails protect the tips of your fingers and toes.

63 Skin Injuries Skin is often damaged. It can repair itself by forming a blood clot over the cut to stop the bleeding and to stop bacteria from entering. Bacteria will then come to the area to kill bacteria. The damaged cells are replaced throug h division.

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