Intro to Immunity The Invasion – A single bacteria replicating every thirty minutes would be 100 trillion in one day! Perspective? 1 trillion seconds = 31,546 years After 3 days, mass would equal human population on Earth – A gram of viral diarrhea feces will contain 100 million virus particles.
Intro to Immunity Who are the invaders? Put them down!
Intro to Immunity Who are the invaders? – Prions – Viruses – Bacteria – Rickettsia – Mycoplasma – Protozoa – Fungi – Worms – Cancer
Overview of Immunity Lymph System – Drainage system… sewer – Much like the plumbing on a shower or sink Waste water & excess fluid from tissue spaces goes back via lymph system Going to go through the bodies “filter” system and back to blood
The Battle In Cattle Who’s Involved? – Bone marrow Industrial complex – Thymus Military academy – B cells Munitions factory – T cells Commanders – Neutrophils Grunts – Lymph nodes Airport security, Singles bar, Dating service…
The Battle In Cattle Who’s Involved? – Spleen MASH Unit, recycling center, giant lymph node – Macrophages FBI, Undercover as Overweight Garbage Collectors…sentinels, reconnaissance – Blood vessels Supply lines – Lymph vessels Drainage system, sewer lines
The Battle In Cattle Who’s Involved? – Natural killer cells Mercenaries – Cytokines Messengers, angels – Complement “C-4” explosive, hand grenades – Antibodies Handcuff, handles, ID badges – Inflammation Heat (ordered via cytokines)
The Battle In Cattle Three Levels of Defense – Secure borders – Police/sheriff – Military
The Battle In Cattle Three Levels of Defense – Secure borders = Barriers – Police/sheriff = Innate – Military = Acquired
The Battle In Cattle Barriers – First line of defense – What barriers?
The Battle In Cattle Barriers – Skin Dry, dead cells Lactic acid, fatty acids Covers ~2 square meters for most people
The Battle In Cattle Barriers – Mucous Membranes Covers ~ 400 sq. meters in people Mucous is sticky… traps organisms, foreign substances Blocks adherence Most passages into/out of the body are MM – Respiratory tract, urinary tract, reproductive tract, G.I. tract.
The Battle In Cattle Barriers – Other Mechanical, Chemical, Cleansing Tears (lysozyme) Saliva Stomach acid Urine flow Cilia movement Sneezing, coughing Diarrhea, vomiting
The Battle In Cattle Draw a Battle Plan for BoxCowia – First: Draw in the barriers to prevent invasion – Leave the inside available to add the second and third levels of defense
The Battle In Cattle Level Two: Innate Immunity – Present at birth – Non specific Immunity does not improve with contact Fast acting (on site)
The Battle In Cattle Innate Team Rosters – Macrophages – Neutrophils – Dendritic cells – NK cells – Complement – Interferon – Cytokines – Inflammation – Fever
The Battle In Cattle Macrophages – “Macro”= large; “phage” = to eat. – Possibly the most famous innate player, critical. – Process information (antigen) & assist in directing the specific immune response.
The Battle In Cattle Macrophages – Part of military intelligence… Sentinel/reconnaissance/assassin… – Hangs out in strategic tissue locations. – After making contact with the enemy (i.e., eating) numerous signals and instructions via cytokines are sent to rest of the immune team
The Battle In Cattle Macrophages – Long living phagocyte Months to years – Born in bone marrow, grows up in blood stream (monocyte), resides in the “tissues”
The Battle In Cattle Neutrophils – “Hired Guns” “Macrophage’s posse” – Reside in blood stream – Professional phagocytes See (smell), eat, destroy
The Battle In Cattle Neutrophils – Another type of WBC (leukocyte) Make up ~ 15 - 45% of a cows WBCs – Short lived ~ 5 days
The Battle In Cattle Neutrophils – Back up macrophages... MPs report a fight in progress. Release chemicals (cytokines) that recruit neutrophils to the scene of the invasion. – Dead neutrophils are a component of pus
The Battle In Cattle Fever and Inflammation – Why?
The Battle In Cattle Draw a Battle Plan for BoxCowia – NOW: Draw in the innate immunity components – Leave space for the third level of defense
The Battle In Cattle Acquired Immunity: Third Line of Defense – Acquired after birth (need exposure). – Attack is targeted to a specific foreign agent: Lepto pomona vs. Lepto hardjo: – More complicated than innate defenses.
The Battle In Cattle Acquired Immunity: Third Line of Defense – Dependent upon “lymphocytes”. – Has unique feature of creating “memory”. – Stimulated via exposure or “vaccination”.
The Battle In Cattle Acquired Immunity – Lymphocytes B-cells – Plasma cells Humoral T-cells Immunity – Helper T cells – Killer T cells – Suppressor T cells Cell Mediated Immunity Antibodies
The Battle in Cattle Antibodies – Protein structures in blood & lymph fluid. – Secreted by ‘B’ Lymphocytes (Plasma cells) – Antibodies work outside the cell in the “fluid” compartments. (Navy). – “Humor” = Fluid Humoral Immunity
The Battle in Cattle Antibodies work by… – Prevent attachment to host cells – Helping phagocytosis “opsonize” (to prepare for eating). – Clump or agglutinate microbes.
The Battle in Cattle Antibodies work by… – Cause inflammation – Attach to microbial weapon (e.g. toxin) and inactivate it.
The Battle in Cattle Cell Mediated Immunity – “CMI” involves the production of cytotoxic T cells (“killer cells”) that destroy abnormal cells such as cancer cells and virus infected cells – “CMI” is dependent upon “T” lymphocytes – “CMI” attacks the pathogens hiding inside of a cell (e.g. viruses)
The Battle In Cattle Draw a Battle Plan for BoxCowia – FINALLY: Draw in the acquired immunity components Include how we help the body develop acquired immunity