Presentation on theme: "Activity: Skeleton Observation"— Presentation transcript:
1Activity: Skeleton Observation Skeletal SystemActivity: Skeleton ObservationAxis: a real or imaginary line about which an object, form, composition, or geometrical construction is symmetrical.Append: to add as a supplement; to attach; hang on.How do these terms relate to your observations of the skeleton? List the features you believe would be classified as axial and appendicular skeleton.Skeletal system tutorialaxial vs appendicular tutorial
2The skeleton can be thought of as 2 main divisions. Skeletal SystemThe skeleton can be thought of as 2 main divisions.The axial skeleton as the name implies, consisting of those parts near the skeletal axis (the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and sternum).The appendicular skeleton, consisting of the upper and lower extremities, the pelvic bone with the exception of the sacrum), and the shoulder girdle.
3Skeletal System Activity: Skeleton Observation Consider what may be the primary function of the axial skeleton. How does this dictate it’s structure?Consider what may be the primary function of the appendicular skeleton. How does this dictate it’s structure?
4Skeletal SystemSome important functions of the human skeleton include:Attachment points for muscles.Protection for various body organs.Movement attachment of muscles with bones acting as levers.Support organs and tissues require structureBlood cell formation red and white blood cells.Mineral Reservoir e.g. phosphorus and calciumWhich of these functions apply to the axial and appendicular skeletons?
6Skeletal SystemFour Types of Bone:Bone types website
7Structure of a long bone includes: Skeletal SystemStructure of a long bone includes:Diaphysis is the long central shaft.Epiphysis forms the larger rounded ends of long bones.Bone types tutorial
8Structure of a long bone includes: Skeletal SystemStructure of a long bone includes:Compact bone is the tissue that forms the surface of bonesSpongy bone is the tissue that makes up the interior of bones In long bones, spongy bone forms the interior of the epiphyses; the diaphysis (shaft) consists of compact bone surrounding the central marrow cavity.
9Skeletal System Structure of a long bone includes: Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock.Periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a point for muscular attachment.
10Skeletal System Structure of a long bone includes: Bone marrow cavity contains bone marrowBone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells.Blood vessel supply oxygenated blood.
11Skeletal SystemCartilage is a hard, strong connective tissue that provides support for some soft tissues and forms a sliding area for joints so that bones can move easily.During development (before birth) cartilage forms most of the skeleton.It is gradually replaced by bone. In a mature individual it is found mainly at the end of bones, in the nose, trachea, and in association with the ribs and vertebrae.
13Skeletal SystemA ligament is a band of tough fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another, serving to support and strengthen a joint.
14Skeletal SystemTendons connect muscles to bones. They are specialized skeletal structures that generally transmit muscular pull to bones.
15Skeletal SystemWrite a 1 page essay outlining the function of connective tissue.Discuss the role played by cartilage, ligaments and tendons citing examples from specific joints.
16Skeletal System A joint is where two or more bones meet. Joints can be classified as:FibrousCartilaginousSynovialDistinguish between the three types of joints listed about in relation to movement allowed.Joint type video clipJoint type tutorial
17Skeletal System Joint types Fibrous (synarthrodial): This type of joint is held together by only a ligament. Examples are where the teeth are held to their bony sockets and at both the radioulnar and tibiofibular joints.
18Skeletal System Joint types Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses): These joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage for example between vertebrae in the spine.Synchondroses are temporary joints which are only present in children, up until the end of puberty. For example the epiphyseal plates in long bones. Symphesis joints are permanant cartilagenous joints, for example the pubic symphesis.
19Skeletal System Joint types Synovial (diarthrosis): are by far the most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint.
20Features of a synovial joint include: Skeletal SystemFeatures of a synovial joint include:Articular capsule joint capsule; the saclike envelope enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint.Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock.Synovial membrane the inner layer of the capsule which secretes synovial fluidSynovial fluid a lubricating liquidBursae a small fluid-filled sac situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur.Meniscus A disk of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint.Ligaments connective tissue , bone to bone
21Skeletal System The 6 types of synovial joint are: Ball and socketHingePivotGlidingCondyloid (ellisoid)Saddlesynovial joint types