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Skeletal System  Activity: Skeleton Observation Activity: Skeleton Observation  Axis: a real or imaginary line about which an object, form, composition,

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System  Activity: Skeleton Observation Activity: Skeleton Observation  Axis: a real or imaginary line about which an object, form, composition,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System  Activity: Skeleton Observation Activity: Skeleton Observation  Axis: a real or imaginary line about which an object, form, composition, or geometrical construction is symmetrical. Axis: a real or imaginary line about which an object, form, composition, or geometrical construction is symmetrical.  Append: to add as a supplement; to attach; hang on. Append: to add as a supplement; to attach; hang on. How do these terms relate to your observations of the skeleton? List the features you believe would be classified as axial and appendicular skeleton. Skeletal system tutorialaxial vs appendicular tutorial

2 The skeleton can be thought of as 2 main divisions.  The axial skeleton as the name implies, consisting of those parts near the skeletal axis (the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and sternum). The axial skeleton as the name implies, consisting of those parts near the skeletal axis (the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and sternum).  The appendicular skeleton, consisting of the upper and lower extremities, the pelvic bone with the exception of the sacrum), and the shoulder girdle. The appendicular skeleton, consisting of the upper and lower extremities, the pelvic bone with the exception of the sacrum), and the shoulder girdle. Skeletal System

3  Activity: Skeleton Observation Activity: Skeleton Observation Consider what may be the primary function of the axial skeleton. How does this dictate it’s structure? Consider what may be the primary function of the appendicular skeleton. How does this dictate it’s structure? Skeletal System

4 Some important functions of the human skeleton include:  Attachment points for muscles. Attachment points for muscles.  Protection for various body organs. Protection for various body organs.  Movement attachment of muscles with bones acting as levers. Movement attachment of muscles with bones acting as levers.  Support organs and tissues require structure Support organs and tissues require structure  Blood cell formation red and white blood cells. Blood cell formation red and white blood cells.  Mineral Reservoir e.g. phosphorus and calcium Mineral Reservoir e.g. phosphorus and calcium  Which of these functions apply to the axial and appendicular skeletons? Which of these functions apply to the axial and appendicular skeletons? Skeletal System

5  Axial Skeleton protection, attachment, movement, support Axial Skeleton protection, attachment, movement, support  Appendicular Skeleton attachment, movement, support, blood cell formation & mineral reservoir. Appendicular Skeleton attachment, movement, support, blood cell formation & mineral reservoir. Skeletal System

6 Four Types of Bone: Bone types website Skeletal System

7 Structure of a long bone includes: Structure of a long bone includes: Bone types tutorial  Diaphysis is the long central shaft.  Epiphysis forms the larger rounded ends of long bones.  Diaphysis is the long central shaft.  Epiphysis forms the larger rounded ends of long bones. Skeletal System

8 Structure of a long bone includes: Structure of a long bone includes:  Compact bone is the tissue that forms the surface of bones  Spongy bone is the tissue that makes up the interior of bones  Compact bone is the tissue that forms the surface of bones  Spongy bone is the tissue that makes up the interior of bones In long bones, spongy bone forms the interior of the epiphyses; the diaphysis (shaft) consists of compact bone surrounding the central marrow cavity. Skeletal System

9  Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock.  Periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a point for muscular attachment.  Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock.  Periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a point for muscular attachment. Structure of a long bone includes: Structure of a long bone includes: Skeletal System

10 Structure of a long bone includes: Structure of a long bone includes:  Bone marrow cavity contains bone marrow  Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells.  Blood vessel supply oxygenated blood.  Bone marrow cavity contains bone marrow  Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells.  Blood vessel supply oxygenated blood. Skeletal System

11  Cartilage is a hard, strong connective tissue that provides support for some soft tissues and forms a sliding area for joints so that bones can move easily. Cartilage is a hard, strong connective tissue that provides support for some soft tissues and forms a sliding area for joints so that bones can move easily.  During development (before birth) cartilage forms most of the skeleton. During development (before birth) cartilage forms most of the skeleton. It is gradually replaced by bone. In a mature individual it is found mainly at the end of bones, in the nose, trachea, and in association with the ribs and vertebrae. Skeletal System

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13  A ligament is a band of tough fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another, serving to support and strengthen a joint. A ligament is a band of tough fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another, serving to support and strengthen a joint. Skeletal System

14  Tendons connect muscles to bones. They are specialized skeletal structures that generally transmit muscular pull to bones. Tendons connect muscles to bones. They are specialized skeletal structures that generally transmit muscular pull to bones. Skeletal System

15 Write a 1 page essay outlining the function of connective tissue. Discuss the role played by cartilage, ligaments and tendons citing examples from specific joints. Skeletal System

16  A joint is where two or more bones meet. A joint is where two or more bones meet.  Joints can be classified as: Joints can be classified as:  Fibrous Fibrous  Cartilaginous Cartilaginous  Synovial Synovial Distinguish between the three types of joints listed about in relation to movement allowed. Joint type tutorial Skeletal System Joint type video clip

17 Joint types Fibrous (synarthrodial): This type of joint is held together by only a ligament. Examples are where the teeth are held to their bony sockets and at both the radioulnar and tibiofibular joints. Skeletal System

18 Joint types Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses): These joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage for example between vertebrae in the spine. Synchondroses are temporary joints which are only present in children, up until the end of puberty. For example the epiphyseal plates in long bones. Symphesis joints are permanant cartilagenous joints, for example the pubic symphesis. Skeletal System

19 Joint types Synovial (diarthrosis): are by far the most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint. Skeletal System

20 Features of a synovial joint include:  Articular capsule joint capsule; the saclike envelope enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint. Articular capsule joint capsule; the saclike envelope enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint.  Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock. Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock.  Synovial membrane the inner layer of the capsule which secretes synovial fluid Synovial membrane the inner layer of the capsule which secretes synovial fluid  Synovial fluid a lubricating liquid Synovial fluid a lubricating liquid  Bursae a small fluid-filled sac situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur. Bursae a small fluid-filled sac situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur.  Meniscus A disk of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint. Meniscus A disk of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint.  Ligaments connective tissue, bone to bone Ligaments connective tissue, bone to bone Skeletal System

21  The 6 types of synovial joint are: The 6 types of synovial joint are:  Ball and socket Ball and socket  Hinge Hinge  Pivot Pivot  Gliding Gliding  Condyloid (ellisoid) Condyloid (ellisoid)  Saddle Saddle synovial joint types Skeletal System

22 Knee Hinge Joint: Flexion/Extention Elbow

23 Skeletal System Pivot: Rotation of one bone around another. Neck at C1 & C2 Radius-ulna joint

24 Skeletal System Ball and socket joint Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Internal & External Rotation/ Circumduction

25 Skeletal System Saddle Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction

26 Skeletal System Condyloid (Ellipsoid) Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction Similar to ball & socket but with less movement wrist

27 Skeletal System Gliding Gliding movements/ sliding back and forth Intercarpal joints Spine

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