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The Blood and Endocrine Systems Rene Mejia, Juan Lozano, Ariel Velez.

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Presentation on theme: "The Blood and Endocrine Systems Rene Mejia, Juan Lozano, Ariel Velez."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Blood and Endocrine Systems Rene Mejia, Juan Lozano, Ariel Velez

2 Overview of Blood ●Nourishes cells ●Fights diseases ●Transports waste from the cells ●Composed of plasma and blood cells

3 Components in Blood ●Red blood cells(erythrocytes) ●White blood cells(leukocytes) ●Blood plasma ●Platelets(thrombocytes)

4 Red Blood Cells/Erythrocytes ●concave-shaped ●transports oxygen, hormones and nutrients to cells ●Originates and matures in the bone marrow ●removes CO2 from cells

5 White Blood Cells/Leukocytes ●fight infections and pathogens ●3 types: T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte and neutrophil

6 T lymphocytes ●regulate immune cell production ●attack pathogens ●Originate in the bone marrow ●Mature in the thymus ●ball shaped

7 B lymphocytes ●produce antibodies and proteins ●their products target foreign invaders ●Originate and mature in the bone marrow ●ball shaped

8 Neutrophil ●responds to an infection during the first stage ●most produced white blood cell type ●Is a granulocyte

9 Blood plasma ●regulates pH and body temperature ● consists of water, fat, proteins, sugar, and salts ●designed to transport cells and fluids

10 Platelets/thrombocytes ●small and fragmented ●used to clot cuts or wounds

11 Hematopoiesis ●the process in which blood cells are formed ●Occurs in the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue ●Blood is typically made in the bone marrow ●Form from stem cells

12 Hormones in Hematopoiesis ●Glucan is a stimulator ●Cytokines are also a stimulator ●Inhibitors include thymosin beta4

13 Cell Count ●provide the count of erythrocytes and platelets ●provide the amount of hemoglobin and hematocrit found in erythrocytes ●can detect blood related diseases

14 Erythropoiesis ●the formation of red blood cells in a yolk sack ●can occur in the bone marrow after 7 months ●regulated by erythropoietin

15 Stages of Erythropoiesis ●Myeloid stem cells turn into erythroblasts ●They turn into erythrocytes ●Remove nucleus for hemoglobin ●Erythrocytes are then placed into the bloodstream

16 Cell Cycle ●events that lead to the division of a cell ●consists of 2 phases:interphase and mitotic ●When a cell leaves the cycle it is quiescent

17 Clotting ●Is the process in which platelets change from a liquid to a solid ●prevents blood from escaping the body ●quality is affected by the amount of platelets ●too much clotting is life-threatening ●2 types: intrinsic and extrinsic

18 Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Clotting ●Intrinsic clotting is starts by the plasma’s “contact factors” ●Extrinsic clotting begins by the release of tissue factor

19 Prevention of Excessive Clotting  can be prevented by regular exercise of antiplatelet therapy

20 Blood Types ●the classification of blood by the appearance of antigens and antibodies

21 Overview of the Endocrine System ●a system of glands that produce hormones ●these hormones control much of our bodies’ growth, production, functions, and development

22 Hormones ●a class of molecules used to communicate between the endocrine system and tissues ●regulate activities ●some are water soluble and others are lipid soluble

23 Homeostasis ●is the successful regulation of variables and maintaining stability within the body ●is kept through hormones and feedback systems ●is ultimately controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems

24 Homeostasis ●insulin and glucagon regulate glucose ●kidneys remove waste from the blood ●hormones and neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that detect issues affecting homeostasis

25 Components of the Endocrine System ●Pituitary Gland ●Thyroid gland ●Parathyroid glands ●Adrenal glands ●Pancreas ●Ovaries ●Testicles ●Hypothalamus ●Pineal gland ●Thymus gland ●Kidneys ●Uterus

26 Hypothalamus ●inferior to the thalamus ●is the part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland ●connects the nervous system to the endocrine system

27 Pituitary Gland ●known as the “master gland” ●Inferior to the hypothalamus ●secretes the growth hormone(GH),TSH,ACTH,PRL, MSH, ADH and oxytocin ● the hormones it releases control other glands or water regulation in the body

28 Pituitary Hormones

29 Pineal Gland ●small and located on the brain stem ●secretes melatonin ●affects sleep patterns

30 Thyroid Gland ●produces and regulates adrenaline, epinephrine and dopamine ●controlled by the TSH ●Located on the trachea

31 Parathyroid gland ●controls the body’s calcium levels ●secretes calcitonin, which decreases the calcium absorbed

32 Thymus ●located in the thorax, in between the sternum and heart ●houses T-lymphocytes until they mature ●secretes thymosin

33 Adrenal gland ●secretes cortisol,aldosterone, corticosterone, sex hormones, adrenaline and norepinephrine ●it controls stress, blood pressure and regulates metabolism ●located in the abdominal cavity

34 Kidneys ●located in the posterior of the abdominal cavity ●secrete calcitriol, erythropoietin, and renin ●remove excess waste from the blood and urine ●reabsorb water, amino acids and glucose

35 Pancreas ●secretes insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, glycogen and pancreatic polypeptide ●helps the digestive process ●located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach

36 Ovaries ●produces ovum ●located in the pelvic cavity near the uterus ●secretes estrogen, testosterone, and progestogen ●its hormones maintain the reproductive organs and enlarge the chest

37 Uterus ●hold the ovum during its development ●located at the bottom of the pelvic cavity ●responds to the hormones given off by the ovaries

38 Testicles ●produce sperm ●secretes testosterone and estrogen ●protrude from the pelvic cavity ●fosters hair growth and increases muscle mass

39 Works Cited "American Society of Hematology." Blood Basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2015..http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Basics/ "Homeostasis." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.. Nordqvist, Christain. "What Is Blood? What Does Blood Do?" Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 12 Sept. 2014. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.. "Regenerative Medicine Partnership in Education." Regenerative Medicine Partnership in Education. SEPA, 2006. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.. Samuel, Leslie. "Erythropoiesis – Formation of Red Blood Cells - Interactive Biology, with Leslie Samuel." Interactive Biology with Leslie Samuel. Leslie Samuel, 31 July 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.. Taylor, Tim. "Endocrine System." InnerBody. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2015.. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeostasis


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