Anemia Insufficient erythrocytes (red blood cells) or hemoglobin Types Hemorrhagic anemia – result of acute or chronic loss of blood Hemolytic anemia – prematurely ruptured erythrocytes Aplastic anemia – destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow Iron-deficiency anemia --Impaired iron absorption Pernicious anemia -- Deficiency of vitamin B12 Treatment is intramuscular injection of B12; application of Nascobal Symptoms Bloody stools Weakness, Tiredness, Fatigue Chest and abdominal pains Shortness of breath (in severe cases) An increased heart rate especially during exertion
Polycythemia Excess RBCs that increase blood viscosity Three main polycythemias are: 1. Polycythemia vera: Generally result of bone marrow cancer 2. Secondary polycythemia: Less oxygen available – normal at high altitudes 3. Blood doping: Artificially induced Signs and symptoms Early: none Late: Headache, Dizziness, Itchiness, Redness of your skin, Shortness of breath, Breathing difficulty when you lie down, Chest pain, Fatigue Risk Factors Age. Polycythemia vera is more common in adults older than 60. It's rare in people younger than 20. Sex. Polycythemia vera affects men more often than it does women. Family history. In some cases, polycythemia vera appears to run in families, indicating that genetic factors other than JAK2 may contribute to the disease.
Sickle Cell Anemia Single base pair mutation results in a single amino acid change. Under low oxygen, Hgb becomes insoluble forming long polymers This leads to membrane changes (“sickling”) and blocking vessels OXY-STATEDEOXY-STATE
Transfusion in Sickle Cell (Controversy!) Used correctly, transfusion can prevent organ damage and save the lives of sickle cell disease patients. Used unwisely, transfusion therapy can result in serious complications.
The Leukemias— Pathophysiology Neoplastic disorders involving WBC 1 or more leukocyte types present as: Undifferentiated, immature, nonfunctional cells Multiply uncontrollably Lg quantities released into general circulation
The Leukemias— Pathophysiology Cell growth in bone marrow suppresses production of normal cells Leads to: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, lack of normal functioning leukocytes Bone marrow presses on nerves = pain As progresses, increase # leukemic cells cause: Congestion and enlargement of lymphoid tissue Lymphademopathy Splenomegaly Hepatomegaly
The Leukemias-Treatment Prognosis related to: WBC count Proportion of immature cells at time of count Individuals with chronic may live 10 yrs. with treatment Chemo Less effective in adults with AML May have to be temp discontinued if blood cell count drops too low Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia Transfusion of platelets might be req Bone marrow transplant If chemo ineffective Must find suitable donor
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis (often called "mono") is an infection caused by the Epstein- Barr virus. Signs of mono include fever, sore throat, headaches, white patches on the back of your throat, swollen glands in your neck, feeling tired and not feeling hungry. Mono is not spread as easily as some other viruses, such as the common cold. The mono virus is found in saliva and mucus. Signs of mono usually develop 4 to 6 weeks after you're exposed to the virus. Generally, people only get mono once. It's most common among people 15 to 35 years old.
Thrombus & Embolus Blood clots are the clumps that result from coagulation of the blood (blood hardens to from liquid to solid). Thrombus: a blood clot that forms in a blood vessel or within the heart and remains there. Embolus: a thrombus that travels from the blood vessel or heart to another location in the body
Thrombocytopenia Any disorder in which there are not enough platelets. Platelets are cells in the blood that help blood to clot. Three major causes of low platelets: Low production of platelets in the bone marrow Increased breakdown of platelets in the bloodstream (called intravascular) Increased breakdown of platelets in the spleen or liver (called extravascular) Symptoms Bruising Nosebleeds or bleeding in the mouth Rash (pinpoint red spots)
Hemophilia rare, inherited bleeding disorder in which your blood doesn’t clot normally. Two main types: A – no clotting factor B – very little clotting factor Symptoms: Excessive bleeding externally & internally Treatments Replacement therapy—giving or replacing the clotting factor that’s too low or missing. Antifibrinolytic Medicines Desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulates the release of stored factor VIII and von Willebrand factor
Hemotoma localized collection of blood, usually clotted, in a tissue or organ. Treatment: RICE for 1 st 24-36 hrs; gentle heat & massage after maybe
Septicemia Definition Septicemia is the presence of bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) and is often associated with severe disease. Causes Septicemia is a serious, life-threatening infection. It can arise from infections throughout the body, including infections in the lungs, abdomen, and urinary tract.