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Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10. I.Composition and Functions of Blood A.Components. Only fluid tissue in body A __________________ in which the.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10. I.Composition and Functions of Blood A.Components. Only fluid tissue in body A __________________ in which the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10

2 I.Composition and Functions of Blood A.Components. Only fluid tissue in body A __________________ in which the cells-formed elements are the _____________________in a _______________matrix known as ________________. Fibrin strands apparent during blood clotting For a blood sample spun in a centrifuge,elements to bottom and plasma to top,RBCS=________________________@ bottom and wt.___________ between them and plasma….=___________________=WBC’s and platelets(cell fragments that help stop bleeding RBC’s=45% of the blood fraction(_________________)/WBC’s<1%/plasma~ 55% Connective tissue Living blood cells Non-living matrix plasma erthrocytyes Buffy coat leukocytes hematocrit

3 B.Physical Characteristics and Volume –Sticky,opaque fluid fluid –Metallic taste –Color varies from scarlet(O2 rich to dull red--- O2 poor –Heavier than water and 5x more viscous –pH 7.35-7.45 –38 C or 100.4 F –8% body weight – Volume in healthy men is ________________________________ 5-6 L or ~ 6 quarts

4 C. Plasma 90% water-liquid part of blood Dissolves about 100 different substances- ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ________________ Nutrients,salts,respiratory gases,hormones,plasma proteins,various wastes and products off cell metabloism

5 ______________________--most abundant solutes most made by liver,except antibodies and certain hormones Example:___________________-carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the circulation,is blood buffer,contributes to osmotic pressure of blood,keeping water warm in blood stream. Plasma proteins albumin

6 Clotting proteins Antibodies to fight pathogens Liver is stimulated to make more proteins when level falls to low and respiratory and urinary system are stimulated to come to bat when blood is too acidic or alkaline

7 D. Formed elements 1)________________________or RBC’s-function to ferry O2 in blood to all cells of the body –_______________----lack a nucleus and have few organelles –A Hb bearing molecule –Lack mitochondria,so make ATP anaerobically…saving on the O2 they carry –Biconcave discs(donuts)-great for gas exchange Erthrocytes anucleate FYI---- Hb=hemoglobin

8 –Outnumber wbc’s_________________and main reason behind blood viscosity –13-18 g/mL Hb male –___________=decrease in O2 –carrying ability of the blood –_________________=abnormal shape in Hb is formed,thus not allowing as many O2 molecules to unload –______________=an increase in # of RBC’s and may result from bone marrow cancer or from living at high altitudes-increases blood viscosity 1000 to 1 anemia Sickle-cell anemia Polycythemia


10 2.Leukocytes=WBC’s 4000-11,000wbc/mm3(<1%total blood volume) Complete cell Can go in and out blood vessels to form protective army ____________________-leaping across ________________________________allows them to find damaged cells and they move to spot by ameboid motion diapedesis Positive chemotaxis

11 _______=total WBC count above 11,000- indicating a bacterial or viral infection _____________=low WBC count usually caused by drugs such as corticosteroids and anticancer drugs ___________=bone marrow becomes cancerous and huge numbers of WBC’s are immature and incapable of carrying out normal protective function-so you are prey to infection and rbc’s are outnumbered as well as platelets leukocytosis leukopenia leukemia

12 TWO GROUPS OF WBC’S:-GRANULOCYTES and AGRANULOCYTES GRANULOCYTES:granule containing,lobed nuclei,several rounde nuclear areas,cytoplasm stains w/ Wright’s stain Neutrophils-most numerous;multilobed nucleus and very fine granules;phagocytes of esp. bacteria and fungi ______________-blue-red nucleus that looks like phone receiver,lysosome-like,brick-red cytoplasmic granules/ increases much during allergies and parasitic infections _____________________-rarest-has lg,histamine granules that stain dark blue(Histamine is an _____________________________________________________ Eosinophils Basinophils Inflammatory chemical that makes blood vessels leaky and attracts other WBC’s the inflammatory site

13 AGRANULOCYTES:lack visible cyoplasmic granules,more of a normal nucleus ________-large dark purple nucleus that occupies most of the cell volume-goes to lymphatic tissue;2nd most numerous wbc __________________-largest WBC;u-shaped nucleus;when they go into tissues they chanhe into macro phages lymphocytes monocytes

14 Never (neutrophils) Let (lymphocytes) Monkeys(monocytes) Eat (eosinophils) Bananas(Basinophils)

15 Platelets-not cells=megakaryocytes--- needed for clotting

16 E.Hematopoiesis –In red bone marrow-myeloid tissue-in skull and pelvis,ribs,sternum.humerus,and,femur –______________________---common stem cell-see chart p.347 –As young cell has produced lots of hemoglobin,the nucleus and most organelles are ejected and cell collapses inward and you have a _______________,still having some_____________ –They enter bloodstream to transport O2 and will eject ER w/in 2 days(Maturation 3-5 days) –__________________________is the hormone controlling RBC production rate-produced by the liver and mostly the kidneys Hemocyto- blast reticulocyte ER erthropoietin

17 F.Formation of WBC’s and Platelets Stimulated by hormones:__________ and _____________-not only prompt red bone marrow to tun out WBC’s,but also assemble an army of WBC’s to ward off attacks by helping WBC’s protect ________________--accelerates production of platelets _____________-Long needle used in red bone marrow to test for such as aplastic anemia or leukemia Colony stimulating factors (CSF’s) and interleukins thrombopoietin Bone marrow biopsy

18 II.Hemostasis=stoppage of bleeding-3 phases –1)Vascular spasms occur-immediate release of blood to blood vessel injury is_____________- causes spasms…narrows at that point,decreasing blood loss,until clotting can happen –2)Platelet Plug forms-repelled by intact endothelium,but when broken and collagen is exposed,platelets become sticky and cling to site.They release chemicals to enhance spasms and attract more platelets-a _______________forms –3)Coagulation events occur……… vasoconstriction Platelet plug or white thrombus forms

19 Coagulation cont’d a.TF(tissue Factor)-helping clotting--- is released b. PF3________________-interacts w/TF and other blood clotting proteins activating a clotting cascade c. prothrombin activator---converts prohtrombin in plasma to thrombin-an enzyme d. Thrombin joins soluble fibrinogen proteins into insoluble____________________----forms a mesh work that traps RBC’s and begins a clot----read p.350…..happens 3-6 min. A phospholipid fibrin


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