3 Acute Leukemias -- Definition A malignant disorder in which haemopoietic blast cells proliferate and constitute > 30% of the bone marrow.Lymphoblasts Lymphoblastic leukemiaMyeloblasts Myeloid leukemia
4 Acute Leukemias -- PC Bone marrow infiltrated by blasts cells Bone marrow failurePan-cytopeniaAnaemia fatigue, SOB on exersionThrombocytopenia bleeding / DICNeutropenia infectionsConstitutional symptoms (malaise, anorexia, night sweat, fever)Lymphadenopathy, hepatospenomegaly
5 Acute Leukemias -- Ix Low Hb Low platelets High WCC (increased blast cells)Low neutrophilsElevated serum uric acidBone marrow biopsy: infiltration by blast cells
7 Acute Leukemias – AML VS ALL MyeloblasticAny age1/3 transformation from other myeloproliferative disordersIncreased DICALLLymphoblasticCommonly childrenPrimary eventMore lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly
16 CML -- Ix Increased WCC (neutrophils and precursors) Later bone marrow failure (anaemia + thrombocytopenia)Raised serum B12Raised serum uric acidBone marrow biopsy hypercellular with high myeloid:erythroid ratio
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