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Blood By: Dr. Holly Nash-Rule. Functions of blood Distribution/transport - nutrients, wastes, gases, etc. Communication, i.e., hormones Prevention of.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood By: Dr. Holly Nash-Rule. Functions of blood Distribution/transport - nutrients, wastes, gases, etc. Communication, i.e., hormones Prevention of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood By: Dr. Holly Nash-Rule

2 Functions of blood Distribution/transport - nutrients, wastes, gases, etc. Communication, i.e., hormones Prevention of fluid loss – hemostasis, osmosis Maintenance of pH Disease/ infection fighting Heating/Cooling

3 Blood Circulation Powered by the pumping action of the heart Functions of blood Carries respiratory gases, nutrients, and hormones Helps body regulate temperature Blood volume Males: 5–6 liters Females: 4–5 liters

4 Composition of Blood Contains cellular and liquid components A specialized connective tissue Blood cells—formed elements Plasma—fluid portion and fibrinogen Hematocrit—measure of % RBC Males: 47% ± 5% Females: 42% ± 5%

5 Major Components of Whole Blood Withdraw blood and place in tube. Plasma 55% of whole blood Least dense component Buffy coat Leukocytes and platelets <1% of whole blood Erythrocytes 45% of whole blood Most dense component Centrifuge the blood sample. Formed elements 1 2

6 Blood Plasma Straw-colored, sticky fluid portion of blood Approximately 90% water Contains over 100 kinds of molecules Ions—Na + and Cl – Nutrients—Sugars, amino acids, lipids, wastes, and proteins Three main proteins Albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen

7 Formed Elements Blood cells Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets Staining of blood cells Acidic dye—eosin; stains pink Basic dye—methylene blue; stains blue and purple

8 Erythrocytes LymphocyteNeutrophils Photomicrograph of a human blood smear PlateletsMonocyte

9 Erythrocytes Oxygen-transporting cells—7.5 µm in diameter (diameter of capillary 8—10mm) Most numerous of the formed elements Females: 4.3–5.2 million cells/cubic millimeter Males: 5.2–5.8 million cells/cubic millimeter Have no organelles or nuclei

10 Erythrocytes Are packed with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin Hemoglobin molecule bears four oxygen molecules Each O 2 molecule bears an iron molecule Results in the oxidation of iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules Gives blood its red color

11 Erythrocytes Pick up O 2 at lung capillaries Release O 2 across other tissue capillaries Structural characteristics contribute to respiratory function Biconcave shape  30% more surface area 97% hemoglobin Lack mitochondria Do not consume O 2 they pick up

12 Erythrocyte

13 Leukocytes—White Blood Cells (WBCs) 4,800–11,000/cubic millimeter Protect the body from infectious microorganisms Function outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissue Circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries Originate in bone marrow

14 Leukocytes—White Blood Cells (WBCs) Two types of leukocytes Granulocytes Agranulocytes Girls Never Eat Bananas Around Long-armed Monkeys

15 Relative Percentages of the Different Types of Leukocytes Formed elements Platelets Leukocytes Erythrocytes Differential WBC count (All total 4,800– 10,800/  l) Neutrophils (50–70%) Lymphocytes (25–45%) Eosinophils (2–4%) Basophils (0.5–1%) Monocytes (3–8%) Agranulocytes Granulocytes

16 Neutrophils—most numerous WBC Phagocytize and destroy bacteria Nucleus—has two to six lobes Granules pick up acidic and basic stains

17 Eosinophils—compose 1–4% of all WBCs Play roles in Ending allergic reactions, parasitic infections Granules pick up mostly acidic stain Granulocytes

18 Basophils—about 0.5% of all leukocytes Nucleus—usually two lobes Function in inflammation mediation Granules secrete histamines Granules pick up mostly basic stain

19 Agranulocytes Lymphocytes—compose 20–45% of WBCs The most important cells of the immune system Nucleus—stains dark purple Effective in fighting infectious organisms Act against a specific foreign molecule (antigen)

20 Agranulocytes Two main classes of lymphocyte T cells—attack foreign cells directly B cells—multiply to become plasma cells Secrete antibodies

21 Agranulocytes Monocytes—compose 4–8% of WBCs The largest leukocytes Nucleus—kidney shaped Transform into macrophages Phagocytic cells

22 Platelets Cell fragments Break off from megakaryocytes Function in clotting of blood

23 Blood Cell Formation Hematopoiesis—process by which blood cells are formed in red marrow 100 billion new blood cells formed each day

24 Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis Bone marrow—located within all bones Red marrow—actively generates new blood cells Contains immature erythrocytes In adults, red marrow is located Between trabeculae of spongy bone of axial skeleton Appendicular girdles Proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

25 Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis Yellow marrow—dormant Contains many fat cells Located in the long bones of adults

26 Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation All blood cells originate in bone marrow All originate from one cell type Blood stem cell (pluripotential hematopoeitic stem cell) Lymphoid stem cells Give rise to lymphocytes Myeloid stem cells Give rise to all other blood cells

27 27 Proerythroblasts Megakaryoblasts Myeloblasts Monoblasts

28 The End


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