Presentation on theme: "NK Macrophages. 本章大綱 1. Hematopoiesis ( 造血 ) 2. Cells of the Immune System 3. Organs of the Immune System."— Presentation transcript:
本章大綱 1. Hematopoiesis ( 造血 ) 2. Cells of the Immune System 3. Organs of the Immune System
Locations of hematopoiesis Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) Embryonic stage: Yolk sac fetal liver spleen (3 rd to 7 th month) bone marrow
Self-renew differentiate (embryonic stem cells, ES cells)
Clinical Use of Hematopoietic Stem Cells 1. Providing a functional immune system to individuals with a genetically immunodeficiency. 2. Replacing a defective hematopoitic system with a functional one (i.e. anemia). 3. Restoring the hematopoitic system of cancer patients after treatment with high doses of chemo- therapeutic agents or radiation.
Autologous : The recipient is also the donor. Syngeneic : The donor is the identical twin of the recipient. Allogeneic : The donor and the recipient are not genetically identical within the same species. Xenogeneic : The donor and the recipient are from different species.
Normal Adult Blood-Cell Count __________________________________ Cell type Cells/mm 3 % ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Red blood cells 5.0 x 10 6 Platelets 2.5 x 10 5 Leukocytes 7.3 x 10 3 Neutrophil 50 – 70 Lymphocyte 20 – 40 Monocyte 1 – 6 Eosinophil 1 – 3 Basophil < 1 ____________________________________________
- Lymphoid Cells B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, Null Cells (natural killer, NK cells) -Mononuclear Phagocytes Monocytes, Macrophages, dendritic cell - Polymorphonuclear Cells (PMN) or granulocytic cells or granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Mast cells, Dendritic cells
Lymphoid Cells - 20% - 40% of the body’s white blood cells - 99% of the cells in the lymph - ~ in the human body - Circulate in the blood and lymph - Migrate into the tissue spaces and lymphoid organs
T Lymphocytes: Thymus B Lymphocytes: Bursa of Fabricius ( 黏液囊 ) or Bone Marrow
T Lymphocyte Markers T cell receptor (TCR) CD4/CD8 CD B7 CD signal transduction
B Lymphocyte Markers Immunoglobulin (Ig) B220 (CD45R) MHC Class II CR1 (CD35) & CR2 (CD21) Fc RII (CD32) B7-1 (CD80) & B7-2 (CD86) CD40
Fate of antigen-activated small B lymphocytes Short half life 1-2 week
Null Cells - Most are large, granular lymphocytes called natural killer (NK) cells. - Against tumor cells and cells infected with some virus. - Constitute % of the lymphocytes in human peripheral blood. - NK T cells
Mononuclear Phagocytes - Monocytes circulating in the blood - Macrophages in the tissues
Macrophages are 5- to 10-fold larger than monocytes and contain more organelles, especially lysosomes
Macrophages -Alveolar macrophages in the lung -Histiocytes in connective tissues -Kupffer cells in the liver -Mesangial cells in the kidney -Microglial cells in the brain - Osteoclasts in bone
Functions of Macrophages - Phagocytosis - Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities - Antigen processing and presentation - Secretion of factors
Dendritic Cells - Arises from the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. -Presenting antigen to T H. -MHC class II and B7 co-stimulatory
Skin, mucousorgans MHC class II B7
Organs of the Immune System
Primary (central) lymphoid organs - Provide appropriate microenvironments for the development and maturation of lymphocytes. -thymus, bone marrow Secondary (peripheral) lymphoid organs - Trap antigen from tissues or vascular spaces and are sites where mature lymphocytes can interact effectively with that antigen. - lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), e.g., gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).
Tertiary lymphoid tissue - Cutaneous-associated lymphoid tissues Lymphatic System ( 淋巴系統 ) - Once mature lymphocytes have been generated in the primary lymphoid organs, they circulate in the blood and lymphatic system, a network of vessels that collect fluid that has escaped into the tissues from capillaries of the circulatory system and ultimately return it to the blood.
The Human Lymphoid System secondary primary 鎖骨下靜脈 胸導管
The thymus stromal cells: maturation lobule +,-, selection
Bone Marrow Human, mice: bone marrow Cattle, sheep: fetal spleen, ileal peyer’s patch Rabbit: gut associated tissue, appendix Birds: bursa of fabricius