2Functions of Blood Transportation O2, nutrients, waste, hormones, heatRegulation—maintain homeostasis of body fluidsRegulate pH, body temperature, maintain fluid volumeProtectionClotting prevents loss of fluidsWhite blood cells protect against diseaseBlood proteins protect against disease
3Physical characteristics and volume Salty and metallic tastingMore dense than waterSlightly alkaline, pH between 7.35 and 7.45Temperature ~ 38o C or 100.4o FMakes up 8% of body weightVolume in adult males is 5-6 L and in females 4-5 LOnly fluid tissue in the body
4Blood components Blood plasma 55% Formed elements 45% RBCs—measurement is hematocrit 14% + 5%Leukocytes and platelets
8HematopoiesisOccurs in the red bone marrow from hemocytoblast/ hematopoietic stem cellSpecialization based on receptors that respond to …hormones
9Erythrocyte structure Flexible structure, large surface areaLack a nucleus and other organelles.33% of weight is hemoglobin molecules.Other proteins include antioxidants and those to maintain RBC shape (spectrin)
10Erythrocyte functionDedicated to carry respiratory gas
11Regulation of RBCsErythropoietin (EOP) glycoprotein hormone produced by kidneys to liver
12Dietary needs to produce RBCs Iron, AAs, lipids, and carbohydrates.Iron is absorbed from the diet65% found in hemoglobinThe rest stored in liver, spleen and bone marrowIron is toxic and requires transferrin as a transporterSome iron is lost in feces and menstrual bloodVitamin B12 and folic acid are necessary for DNA synthesis
13Fate and death of RBCs RBCs have a lifespan of 100 to 120 days Age makes them less flexible and the hemoglobin begins to degenerate.Old RBCs get trapped in the small capillaries of the spleenMacrophages destroy and digest RBCsHeme and globin are separatedGlobin broken down into a.a.sHeme bilirubinurobilinogenstercobilinBloodliverintestineanus
15Erythrocyte Imbalances Anemia reduced O2 carrying capacity of the bloodInsufficient number of RBCs:Hemorrhagic - due to blood loss associated with an injury, undiagnosed bleeding ulcer, etc.Hemolytic - due to blood loss due to transfusion reactions & certain bacterial and parasite infectionsAplastic - due to destruction or inhibition of red marrow by drugs, ionizing radiation or certain bacterial toxins.
16Erythrocyte Imbalances Anemia reduced O2 carrying capacity of the bloodLow hemoglobin content:Iron Deficiency - inadequate intake or absorption of iron, forms microcytes.Pernicious - dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 or inadequate production of intrinsic factor for absorption of Vitamin B12 , forms macrocytes
17Erythrocyte Imbalances Anemia reduced O2 carrying capacity of the bloodAbnormal Hemoglobin in RBCsThalassemias- one globin chain is absent/faultyPolycythemia-excess of erythrocytes increasing blood viscosity
18Erythrocyte Imbalances Polycythemia - abnormally high number of RBCs ( million/mm3). Increases blood viscosity & blood pressure.most often the result of bone marrow cancer.Lecuopenia - abnormally low number of WBCs (less than 5,000/mm3).drugs, steroids & anti-cancer agents.
19Leukocytes Structure WBCs have a nucleus and other organelles. WBCs can undergo diapedesis using amoeboid motion when in the tissuesUse chemical chemotaxis to follow trail to infection or damaged tissue.
20Granular leukocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils multilobed nucleus, inconspicuous granulesPhagocytize bacteria & some fungiProduced in bone marrow by myeloblastsEosinophilsbilobed nucleus, red granulesDestroy parasitic worms & immune complexesBasophilslobed nucleus, purple-black granulesCause vasodilation by release of histamines
21Agranular leukocytes Lymphocyte Monocytes B lymphocytes - Humoral Immunity (antibodies)T lymphocytes - Cellular ImmunityProduced in lymphatic tissuesMonocytesDifferentiate into macrophages in tissues.Provide defense against viruses & intracellular bacteria in chronic infections.Produced by monoblasts in lymphatic tissues.
22Production of leukocytes Leukopoiesis is stimulated by interleukins and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into several types of cells.Myeloid stem cellsLymphoid stem cell
24Leukocyte Imbalances Leukopenia—low WBC count Leukemia—unchecked growth of a single unspecialized clone. Abnormally high numbers of immature WBCs that are mitotic & unspecializedAcute leukemia occurs if it derives from blast-type cellsChronic leukemia occurs if it derives from later stagesBone marrow is compromised and defense system becomes nonfunctionalInfectious mononucleosis derives from excessive numbers of agranulocytes (Epstein-Barr virus)
25PlateletsUnder the influence of thrombopoietin, myeloid stem cells develop into megakaryocytes (huge cells).These cells fragment into 2-3K particles.They have a very short life of 5- 9 days.
26HemostasisDamaged blood vessels require a rapid, localized and controlled hemostatic response to reduce blood loss.Vascular spasm/constrictionPlatelet plug formationBlood clotting/ coagulation
31Stages of clottingExtrinsic (s) and intrinsic (min) pthwys make prothrombinase.Prothrombinase & Ca2+ Catalyze prothrombin thrombinThrombin & Ca2+ converts soluble fibrinogen insoluble fibrin (thread of the clot)Thrombin activates factor XIII which stabilizes & strengthens threads
33Thromboemolitic Disorders Thrombus clot in an unbroken vesselEbolus an abnormal object moving through a blood vessel, Clot, air bubble, lipid droplet, thrombus, etc.DisordersEmbolisms (pulmonary, cerebral, cardiac)ArtherosclerosisInflammationTreatmentAspirinHeparinWarfarin
34Bleeding disorders Thrombocytopenia—low platelet levels Impaired liver functionVitamin KHemophiliaDeficiency of factor VIII (antihemophilic factor)Deficiency of factor IXLack of factor XI
35ABO blood typing Based on two glycolipid antigens, A and B. Blood has agglutinogens (antibodies) that react to A or B antigens.
38Rh blood groupsHemolytic disease of newborn (HDN)
39Transfusion reactions Agglutination clogs blood capillariesClumped cells will rupture and be phagocytized by macrophagesHemoglobin is released into the bloodOxygen carrying is disruptedBlood flow is impairedHemoglobin passing into kidney tubules causes cell death and renal shutdown
40Diagnostic blood tests Lipidemia is characteristic of those with heart diseaseErythrocyte morphology can detect anemiasDifferential white blood cell countHigh eosinophil indicates allergies or parasitic infectionPlatelet count (thrombocytopenia)SMAC is blood chemistry profileCBC provides information on the formed elements