Chapter 3 Immune System (Is) Immune organs and immune tissues Central immune organs(primary lymphoid organs) Peripheral immune organ(secondary lymphoid organs) Immunocytes Lymphocytes(T,B cells and NK cells) APC(M ɸ,DC,B cells) Other cells(neutrophil,basophil,eosinophil etc.) Immune molecules Antibody,Complement,Cytokine CD and adhesion molecules,MHC molecules
Human red blood cells (red), activated platelets (purple) and white blood cells - monocyte (green) and T lymphocyte (orange). Colorized-SEM (scanning electron micrograph) Magnification:-1200x-- (Based on an image size of 1 inch in the narrow dimension)
Part I Central Immune organs Central Immune Organs are the sites of generation, differentiation and maturation of immunocytes. Bone marrow Thymus Bursa of Fabricius (the site of B cells maturation in birds)
2. Cells in thymus and thymus microenviroment (1)Thymus stroma cells (TSC) Thymus epithelial cells(TEC), Fibrocyte,Macrophages, Dendritic cells (2)Thymocytes The cells migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus and then become thymocytes
(3)Thymus microenviroment TSC TEC: Secret thymus hormones and cytokines. Interaction between cells by direct contact. Extracellular matrix Active substance in local sites
3. Function of Thymus (1) Development and differentiation of T lymphocytes in thymus TSC interact with thymocytes directly by adhesion molecules. TSC secrete various cytokines and thymus hormones. Thymocytes secrete various cytokines. (2)Immune regulation of the thymus (3)Barrier function of the thymus
II. Bone marrow The bone marrow is the site of generation of all circulating blood cells in the adult, including immature lymphocytes,and is the site of B cell maturation.
Functions of bone marrow The site of generation of all immunocytes The site of differentiation and maturation of immunocytes The site of immune response of B cell,specifically in secondary immune response.
III.Bursa(Bursa of Fabricius) Specific immune organs in birds The site of differentiation and proliferation of B cells in birds.
Part II Peripheral lymphoid organ The site where lymphocytes locate,response to foreign antigens,produce specific antibody and sensitized T lymphocytes. Lymph node Spleen Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) Skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT)
I. Lymph node ( LN) Lymph nodes are the organs in which adaptive immune responses to lymph-borne antigens are initiated.
From http://medicine.ucsd.edu/clinicalmed/head.htmhttp://medicine.ucsd.edu/clinicalmed/head.htm A typical active lymphnode, e.g. in an infection Surface Locations of Lymph Node Chains Here’s a chance to revise your knowledge of: 1 mm
Functions of lymph nodes Filter and eliminate foreign antigens. The site of immune response. The site of lymphocytes residence and source of recirculation cells.
II. Spleen The spleen is the major site of immune responses to blood-borne antigens.
II. Immunocytes 1. Lymphocytes 2. Mononuclear phagocytes 3. Other cells
III Homing and recirculation of lymphocytes I. Homing of lymphocytes: the process by which particular subsets of lymphocytes selectively enter some tissues but not others is called lymphocyte homing. (homing receptor on T lymphocyte and ligand on endothelial cell) lymphocytes circulate among / between? blood and peripherial lymph organs lymphocytes circulate among / between? blood and peripherial lymph organs
Na ï ve T lymphocytes home to lymph node as a result of L-selectin binding to its ligand on high endothelial venules,which are present only in lymph nodes. Activated T lymphocytes,including effective cells,home to sites of infection in peripheral tissue,and this migration is mediated by E- and P-selectins and integrins.
2. Recirculation of lymphocytes Lymphocyte recirculation is the process lymphocytes circulate repeatedly among blood,lymph,lymphoid organs and tissues.
Promote lymphocytes to contact with antigen throughout the body. Promote effector cells migrate to inflammation sites rapidly. Promote lymph tissue acquire supplement of new lymphocytes from circulatory pools. Memory cells can participate in recirculation and secondary immune response. 3. Significance