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The Cancer Killer Yao Qiang Renal Division, Renji Hospital, SSMU 2005.5.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cancer Killer Yao Qiang Renal Division, Renji Hospital, SSMU 2005.5."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cancer Killer Yao Qiang Renal Division, Renji Hospital, SSMU 2005.5

2 Words in the short Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiotherapy Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external- beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy). Systemic radiotherapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called radiation therapy. Treatment using more than one anticancer drug. Chemical combination (combination chemotherapy)

3 Words in the short Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream. Leukemia Abnormal cells that are confined to the ducts or lobules in the breast. Breast cancer A malignant disease of the lymphatic system that is characterized by painless enlargement of lymph nodes, the spleen, or other lymphatic tissue. Other symptoms may include fever, weight loss, fatigue, or night sweats. Also called Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin disease Thyroid cancer Skin cancer

4 Words in the short In medicine, an improvement related to treatment Response 有反应 The return of signs and symptoms of cancer after a period of improvement. Relapse 复发 A decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of cancer. Remission 缓解 In partial remission, some, but not all, signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. In complete remission, all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared, although cancer still may be in the body. A cell from which other types of cells develop. Blood cells develop from blood- forming stem cells. Stem cells 干细胞 Bone marrow transplantation 骨髓移植 Breakthrough 突破 Life threatening 威胁生命

5 Words in the short Cancer that does not respond to treatment. Drug resistant 抗药物性 Any change in the DNA of a cell. Mutation 突变 Mutations may be caused by mistakes during cell division, or they may be caused by exposure to DNA-damaging agents in the environment. Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect. If they occur in cells that make eggs or sperm, they can be inherited; if mutations occur in other types of cells, they are not inherited. Certain mutations may lead to cancer or other diseases. A doctor who specializes in treating cancer. Oncologist 肿瘤学家 Some oncologists specialize in a particular type of cancer treatment. For example, a radiation oncologist specializes in treating cancer with radiation Donor 捐者 Interferon 干扰素 Interleukin 白介素

6 The questions for the short What is the meaning of cancer killer? Where was the word “cancer” from? How many therapies to the cancer?

7 Vincent T DeVita, Jr, MD Dr DeVita earned his BSc at the College of William and Mary in 1957 and his MD degree at George Washington University School of Medicine in 1961. Dr DeVita was instrumental in developing combination chemotherapy programs such as the four-drug combination known by the acronym MOPP, which led to the effective regimen of potentially curative chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large-cell lymphomas. is the first appointee to the post of 'The Amy and Joseph Perella Professor of Medicine' at Yale University, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to cancer research and treatment. Dr DeVita and his colleagues played a major role in developing similar treatments for other lymphomas and for ovarian and breast cancers.

8 The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is a world leader in research to understand, treat and prevent cancer and other life-threatening diseases.

9 Who is Fred Hutchinson ? The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center was founded by Dr. William Hutchinson in honor of his brother, Fred, a former major league baseball player and manager, who died of lung cancer at age 45. The Hutch Award is presented annually to a major league baseball player who exemplifies the fighting spirit and competitive desire of Fred Hutchinson. Hutch Award

10 Nobel laureates in the center Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (2004) Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (2001) Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (1990)

11 Medical Breakthroughs and Research Firsts Transplantation Bone-marrow transplantation, which has provided a cure to thousands of leukemia patients worldwide and boosted survival rates from nearly zero to as high as 80 percent. Mini-transplantation, a less toxic form of stem-cell transplantation that offers lifesaving treatment to older people and those unable to tolerate the rigors of high-dose treatment regimens. Application of stem-cell transplantation to a variety of cancers and genetic and immune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, scleroderma and lymphoma.

12 Medical Breakthroughs and Research Firsts World-wide Impact Fred Hutchinson trains physicians from many countries in bone-marrow and stem-cell transplantation, which makes these lifesaving therapies available to tens of thousands of patients each year. More than 300 graduate and postdoctoral students are also trained at the center each year. The center treats patients from all over the world. More than 8,000 bone- marrow and stem-cell transplants have been performed at Fred Hutchinson and its treatment partnership, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. More than 1 million people worldwide have participated in public-health studies led by Fred Hutchinson researchers. The center cancer prevention research program is a model for other institutions around the globe. Fred Hutchinson is the coordinating site for many national and international research studies, such as the Women Health Initiative, the most far-reaching study ever devoted to women health, and the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, a global effort to develop and test successful HIV vaccines. Center researchers took part in a study that found that a single dose of an inexpensive drug can significantly reduce transmission of HIV from Ugandan mothers to their infants.

13 Medical Breakthroughs and Research Firsts Targeted Cell Treatments The monoclonal antibody that led to Mylotarg: the first FDA- approved, antibody-targeted chemotherapy. The drug is a less toxic and more effective form of cancer treatment than standard chemotherapy. A technique, developed in collaboration with UW, to deliver radiation directly to cancer cells using radiolabeled antibodies, which spares healthy tissue. A new treatment for non-Hodgkins lymphoma based on antibody- targeted therapy, an approach now used to treat thousands of people annually. A promising treatment for patients with deadly metastatic melanoma, which uses an infusion of immune-system cells to target the cancer.

14 Medical Breakthroughs and Research Firsts Improved Detection A method of monitoring cancer risk and onset in patients with the precancerous condition Barrett esophagus. The technique has boosted survival rates for esophageal cancer from 5 percent to more than 80 percent. A protein marker in the blood, discovered with partners at the Pacific Northwest Research Institute, that may allow for more accurate early detection of ovarian cancer. A diagnostic test that indicates whether a woman with breast cancer would benefit from aggressive chemotherapy. This discovery saves patients from arduous treatments that would not help them. A new diagnostic test for lupus 梩 he first screening breakthrough for the disease in 50 years.

15 Medical Breakthroughs and Research Firsts Prevention Studies A gene that plays a role in prostate-cancer susceptibility in young and middle-aged men. Study results that indicate three daily servings of vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage may lower a man 抯 risk of prostate cancer by nearly half. Findings that at least five glasses of water a day may lower a woman risk of colorectal cancer by more than 50 percent. Research showing that regular aerobic activity 3-4 hours a week may lower a woman risk of breast cancer by up to 40 percent. Study findings that vitamin A supplements do not prevent lung cancer in high-risk populations.

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