2Functions of BonesSupport – hard framework that supports body & cradles soft organsProtection – fused bones of skull, vertebrae, rib cageMovement – skeletal muscles use bones as leversMineral Storage – calcium & phosphateBlood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis) – RBC & WBC forms within red marrow cavities of certain bones
3Classification of Bones All bones contain external compact bone & internal spongy bone filled with red or yellow bone marrow
5Classification of Bones Classified according to shape:Long Bones – has a shaft & 2 ends; made mostly of compact bone but may contain spongy bone in its interiorEx. Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, fingers of handShort Bones – cube-like & contain mostly spongy bone; compact bone provides thin surface layerEx. Bones of carpus (wrist) & tarsus (ankle)Flat Bones – thin, flattened & usually a bit curved; have 2 relatively parallel compact bone surfacesEx. Sternum, ribs, skullIrregular Bones – bones that do not fit above classificationEx. Vertebrae & os coxa (pelvis)Sutural Bones – small, flat, irregular shaped bones of skullSesamoid Bones – small, flat, shaped like sesame seed; develop in tendons located near jointsEx. Knee cap
6Why is Bone considered an Organ? Bones are organs (organ level of organization) because they contain different types of tissueOsseousNervousBloodCartilage
7Anatomy of Long BonesDiaphysis (shaft) – composed of a thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a central medullary cavity (marrow cavity)“dia” – passing throughEpiphyses – bone endsExterior made up of compact boneInterior is spongy boneWhy are the exterior & interior regions of the epiphyses structured this way?Joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with thin layer of articular cartilage (cushion)“epi” – on top of
8Anatomy of Long Bones Periosteum – outer surface of diaphysis Richly supplied with nerve fibers & blood vesselsEndosteum – a delicate covering of internal bone structuresWhy are there wrappings found within long bone structure?
9Anatomy of Short, Irregular & Flat Bones Thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on outsideEndosteum-covered spongy bone (called diploe in flat bones) on inside
10Hematopoetic Tissue in Bones Hematopoeisis: formation of blood cells“hema” – blood“poiesis” – production or formation ofInfantsMedullary cavity & all spongy bone contain red marrowAdultsDiaphysis is usually filled with fatty (adipose) yellow marrowMajority of hematopoiesis in long bones occurs in head of the femur & humerusMost important blood production occurs in diploe of flat bones (sternum) & in some irregular bones (hip bone)
11Bone Histology Now what level of organization are we talking about? Bone contains specialized cells & a solid, sturdy matrix (calcium salts deposited around collagen protein fibers)Osteocytes: mature bone cells that occupy a lacuna“osteo” – bone“cyte” - cell
12Bone HistologyBone cells are arranged in cylindrical patterns throughout bone around thin tubes called Haversian canals that contain nerves & blood vessels that nourish the osteocytes.Tiny cytoplasmic extensions called canaliculi connect the osteocytes to one another & the Haversian canals.
13Functions of Osteocytes Maintain the protein & mineral content of the matrixSecrete chemicals that dissolve old matrix & then stimulate the depositing of calcium crystalsAssist in the repair of damaged boneIf released from lacunae, osteocytes can become an osteoblast or an osteoprogenitor cell
14Osteo-progenitor Cells OsteoblastsPerform osteogenesisMake & release proteins & other parts of matrixBefore calcium salts are deposited the matrix is called osteoidOsteoblasts elevate the level of calcium salts in matrix, thus converting osteoid to boneStem cells that undergo mitosis, producing daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblastsAid in repair of bone fracturesLocated in the endosteum (which lines marrow cavities)
15Osteoclasts Cells that break down bone matrix Large cells with approximately 50 nucleiDissolve matrix by secreting acids & certain enzymesDissolved minerals are reabsorbed in a process called osteolysis“lysis” – loosen or dissolve
17Osteoblast-Osteoclast Relationship Osteoclasts are constantly destroying bone matrix & osteoblasts are always adding itRemember…osteoblasts = building boneRemember…osteoclasts = crush boneWhen osteoclasts remove calcium salts faster than osteoblasts deposit them, bones weakenThe converse is also trueStress body through exercise = strengthen muscle & bonesDeclining muscular activity = reduction of bone mass at sites of muscle attachment
18Bone Formation & Growth Begins to form 6 weeks after fertilizationIt is cartilaginousOssification occursProcess by which cartilage is replaced by bone
20Bone RemodelingThroughout adult life osteocytes, osteoclasts & osteoblasts remain activeIn young adults, 1/5 of the adult skeleton is recycled & replaced each yearRegular exercise is essential in maintaining normal bone structure
21Bone Fractures Fractures are cracks or breaks in bone Most heal if components of blood supply surviveDue toExtreme loadsSudden impactsStresses from unusual directions
26Effects of Hormones (Endocrine System) on Bone Relationship between the Endocrine & Skeletal SystemsCalcitriol: essential for normal Ca & P ion absorptionHormone GH (growth hormone): increases rate of mitosis of chondrocytes & osteoblasts, increases rate of protein synthesis (collagen & cartilage for cartilage & bone formation)Parathyroid hormone: increases reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood, raises blood Ca levels & increases absorption of Ca by small intestine & kidneysCalcitonin: decreases the reabsorption of Ca from bones, lowering blood Ca levelsEstrogen or Testosterone: promotes closure of epiphyses of long bones (stops growth) & helps retain Ca in bones (maintaining strong bone matrix)
27Effects of Nutrition on Bone Body needs constant dietary supply of calcium, phosphate salts, magnesium, fluoride, iron & manganeseVitamin A stimulates osteoblast activityVitamin C stimulates osteoblast developmentLack results in scurvy, a loss of bone mass & strengthVitamins K & B12 make proteins (collagen) in bone
28Effects of Nutrition on Bone Vitamin D helps integrate Ca in bone tissueIf we do not replace Ca & P ions lost each day in urine, these ions will be released from bonesMakes bones weakerRickets (a form of osteomalacia) caused by inadequate exposure to sunlightBones become flexible & bow outCa is most abundant mineral in bodyHelps bone growthNeuromuscular activity
29RUBBER BONESMake sure you READ the directions & FOLLOW them CAREFULLY!You MUST wear your SAFETY EQUIPMENT!Acetic acid??? Chemical formula?CH3COOHSodium oxalate??? Formula?Na2C2O4Answer all the Follow-Up Questions after each Part.Clean your LAB STATIONS!
30RUBBER BONES INTRODUCTION: What makes bones strong? Some say you should drink milk when your bones are developing. Is this logical?Using your knowledge of osseous tissue, perform the following lab & answer the Conclusion & Application questions.PART ONE: GOGGLES ARE REQUIRED FOR THIS LAB!!Take an uncooked chicken bone & break it in half.Take one side & pour the contents of the marrow cavity onto a slide and create a wet mount using bromothymol blue dye (make sure the slide contents are VERY thin!).Look at the wet mount under the microscope using medium and/or high power. DRAW WHAT YOU SEE (using your correct format for microscope drawings) & label properly.ANSWER the FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS
31RUBBER BONESPART TWO:Take one half of the chicken bone & break it in half again.Place one half of the new broken bone into a test tube containing distilled water & the remaining half place into a test tube of acetic acid (vinegar).Using masking tape & a pen, identify each test tube as ACID & WATER.Place the test tubes into a holder for hours.MAKE A PREDICTION: What do you think the effect of each liquid will be on the bones?The End
32RUBBER BONES PART THREE: PUT YOUR GOGGLES ON!!! Must be completed hours after Part Two!Mark two clean test tubes as ACID & WATER with a piece of masking tape & a pen.Remove 3-4 milliliters of solution from each test tube into the correct clean test tube. DO NOT USE THE SAME PIPET FOR EACH TUBE!!!Add 2-3 drops of 1% sodium oxalate into each of the NEW test tubes filled with solution. Watch what happens…DESCRIBE IT!ANSWER the FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS.
33RUBBER BONES PART FOUR: POSITIVE CONTROL TEST Add 1.5 grams of calcium carbonate powder into a beaker.Add 6 ml of acetic acid, stir well allowing the gas to evolve. Let any remaining solid settle to the bottom.Filter the top portion of the liquid located in the beaker into a clean test tube. This solution should be CLEAR.Add 3 drops of 1% sodium oxalate solution to the test tube of filtered liquid.ANSWER the FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS.
34RUBBER BONES PART FIVE: Hardness, Color, Texture Tests Using a set of tweezers, extract each of the bones, wash them off & check for hardness, using the tweezers. WRITE DOWN YOUR OBSERVATIONS.Using the magnifying glass, observe the color & texture of the bones. WRITE DOWN YOUR OBSERVATIONS.Place the bones back into their original solutions & store in the classroom for another hours. You may need to add more vinegar or water to your test tubes.REPEAT steps 1-2 after the hour period is up.ANSWER the FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS.The End
35Rubber Bones Lab Abstract Title PageTitle of lab, Name, Date & PeriodData & ObservationsPart 1: Bone Marrow ExtractionLabel the layers of the bone cross-section & the contents found within each regions.Part 2 & 5: Acid & Water BonesDraw & label your Acid & Water beaker set-up.Describe, compare & contrast the observations made for hardness, color & texture of the bones in each beaker & before & after letting them soak.Part 4: Positive Control TestDraw & label your Positive Control Test set-up.Include necessary chemicals (include formula) & precipitate found.
36Rubber Bones Lab Abstract Conclusions & ApplicationsIn paragraph format, answer the following Conclusion & Application questions.State your prediction for the experiment. Was it supported or not? Explain.What makes bones strong? Some say you should drink milk when your bones are developing. Is this logical? Explain your answer using ideas investigated in this lab.What is a positive control test & why is such a test performed? Describe the precipitate found at the bottom of the test tube. Why was it there? What did its presence confirm?
37Conclusion & Application Questions (cont) What is typical/healthy pH of blood? Is this acidic or basic? Why is blood pH important to understand when talking about the health of bone tissue?Think about one of the most common staples of the American diet – soda. What is the pH of soda? Is it acidic or basic? What in the soda gives it this pH?What effect could drinking a high quantity soda each day have on the health of bone? What is the chemical reaction that takes place? Explain your answer using examples from this lab.What other body parts are made from/of a high proportion of calcium? Describe one other application of this lab to another part of the body other than bone.