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Locomotor system Organs and structures concerning with the animal movements Passive skeletal structure Bones (osteology) Joints (artherolog) Active skeletal.

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Presentation on theme: "Locomotor system Organs and structures concerning with the animal movements Passive skeletal structure Bones (osteology) Joints (artherolog) Active skeletal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Locomotor system Organs and structures concerning with the animal movements Passive skeletal structure Bones (osteology) Joints (artherolog) Active skeletal structure Muscles (myology) Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

2 Osteology Def: it is the science deals with the bones Functions of bones give the body shape (through skeleton) Storage of minerals (calcium) Storage of lipids (yellow marrow) Blood cell production (red marrow) Protection Leverage (force of motion) Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

3 Classification of bones I- according to shape, position and function 1-long or tubular bones Long, cylindrical with central cavityLong, cylindrical with central cavity have long body, proximal and distal extremitieshave long body, proximal and distal extremities Present in limbs as humerus, radius and femurPresent in limbs as humerus, radius and femur Act as supporting column and leversAct as supporting column and levers Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

4 1-long or tubular bones (cont) have very small central cavity as small metatarsal and metacarpal bone Reduced long bone: have very small central cavity as small metatarsal and metacarpal bone have no medullary cavity as ribs elongated bone: have no medullary cavity as ribs Small metacarpal large metacarpal Rib Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

5 2- flat bones Is plate like Is plate like give area for muscles attachments give area for muscles attachments Protect underline vital organ Protect underline vital organ Scapula, pelvic bone and skull Scapula, pelvic bone and skull 3- short bones Has similar dimensions Has similar dimensions diffuse and reduce concussion diffuse and reduce concussion carpal and tarsal bone carpal and tarsal bone Carpal bones Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

6 4- Irregular bones irregular in shape irregular in shape single bone & median position single bone & median position As vertebrae As vertebrae 5- sesamoid bones Present between tendons and joint Present between tendons and joint reduce the frictions between tendons and bones reduce the frictions between tendons and bones As proximal and distal sesamoid bones As proximal and distal sesamoid bones large metacarpal Proximal sesamoid vertebra Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

7 6- pneumatic bone Have air spaces instead of central cavity Have air spaces instead of central cavity As Para-nasal sinus of mammal As Para-nasal sinus of mammal the majority of birds skeleton the majority of birds skeleton Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

8 1- compact bone Forming the external dense shell of all bones Its thickness is differ –thick in the middle and thin at the extremities II- according to their structures Compact bone Medullary cavity Periosteum Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

9 Haversian system or osteon: is the microscopical structure of bones Haversian system or osteon: is the microscopical structure of bones Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

10 2- Spongy bones Delicates bony spicules and trabeculae have spongy appearance Its spaces is filled by bone marrow The spongy bone (trajectories) fill the short bones And fill the extremities of long bones Spongy bone Bony trabeculae Compact bone Marrow space Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

11 1- endochondral bones: from hyaline cartilage All except skull and flat bone 2- intramembranous bones: From fibrous membranes From fibrous membranes Cranial and flat bones III- according to their development Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

12 1- Axial bones: unpaired, in medain line Skull, vertebrae, sternum 2- Appendicular bones: bone of limbs 3- Splanchnic or visceral bones: within soft tissues os cordis of ruminant, os penis of dog, os diaphragmatic of camel IV- according to their position Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

13 Cross anatomical components of long bone PeriosteumCompact bone EndosteumMedullary cavity Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

14 1-Periosteum (the outer connective tissue covering), it divided into –Outer protective layer (more fibers) –Inner cellular layer (osteogenic ) Its function –Isolate bone from surrounding tissues –route for circulatory and nervous supply –bone growth and repair Outer fibrous layer Inner cellular layer Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

15 2- Compact substance Thick at the shaft and thin at extremities 3- Spongy bone at the extremities 4- Medullary cavity contain the marrow in the central cavity of long bones and within the spaces of spongy bone 5- Bone marrow in the central cavity of long bones and within the spaces of spongy bone Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

16 types of bone marrow – –Red marrow (mainly in young and rich in blood forming cells) – –Yellow marrow( in adult, much amount of fat cells) – –Gelatinous (degenerated yellow marrow in senile animal or badly nourished animal) 6- Endosteum – –thin fibrous membrane – –lined the central cavity and haversian canals of long bone. – –covers the trabeculae of spongy bones Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

17 Gross anatomical regions of long bone 1.Middle body (shaft or diaphysis) 2.Proximal and distal extremities (epiphysis) 3.In young the growth zone (metaphysis) is located between epiphysis and diaphysis) 4. in adult metaphysis become ossify know as epiphyseal line Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

18 Epiphysis Epiphyseal line or metaphysis in young Diaphysis Epiphysis Epiphyseal line or metaphysis in young Articular cartilage Spongy bone Periosteum Compact bone Endosteum Medullary cavity Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

19 Gross structures of short, irregular and flat bones In the skull the spongy bones is called diploe, contain diploic veins Compact layer Spongy bone (trabeculae, spaces, endosteum and marrow Compact layer Periosteum Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

20 Chemical composition of bones A-organic material (35%) cells, osteoid (ground sulfated mucopolysaccharides) and collagen fibers it provides toughness and elasticity B- inorganic materials (65%) mostly calcium and phosphorus it provides hardness to bones The bones are hard structures consists of 5% water and 95% solid materials, that divided into Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

21 Blood and nerve supply of bones 1- Arterial blood supply I. I. medullary or nutrient artery II. II. periosteal arteries III. III. epiphseal arteries IV. IV. metaphyseal arteries Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

22 2- Venous drainage few accompany arteries but the majoirty not accompany the arteries, they emerge near the articular surfaces 3- Lymph vessels forming channels within periosteum and haversian canals larger lymphatic passes with the veins 4- Nerve supply vasomotor (autonomic) to vessels sensory fibers distributed mainly in the periosteum Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

23 Skeleton 1- Exoskeleton from ectoderm shells, scales of fish, feather of birds, hair and hoofs of mammals 2- Endoskeleton from mesoderm (except notochord from endoderm) bones and cartilages of animal It is the framework of hard structures (bones & cartilages) which support the soft tissues, and is divided into Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat

24 Classification of mammalian skeleton 1- Axial skeleton skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum 2- Appendicular skeleton bones of limbs 3- Splanchnic or visceral skeleton os penis of dog, os cordis of ruminant, os diaphragmaticus of camel Dr: Ahmed SaberVet. Anat


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